Environmental Management

, Volume 35, Issue 5, pp 527–543 | Cite as

Measuring and Incorporating Vulnerability into Conservation Planning

  • Kerrie Wilson
  • Robert L. Pressey
  • Adrian Newton
  • Mark Burgman
  • Hugh Possingham
  • Chris Weston


Conservation planning is the process of locating and designing conservation areas to promote the persistence of biodiversity in situ. To do this, conservation areas must be able to mitigate at least some of the proximate threats to biodiversity. Information on threatening processes and the relative vulnerability of areas and natural features to these processes is therefore crucial for effective conservation planning. However, measuring and incorporating vulnerability into conservation planning have been problematic. We develop a conceptual framework of the role of vulnerability assessments in conservation planning and propose a definition of vulnerability that incorporates three dimensions: exposure, intensity, and impact. We review and categorize methods for assessing the vulnerability of areas and the features they contain and identify the relative strengths and weaknesses of each broad approach. Our review highlights the need for further development and evaluation of approaches to assess vulnerability and for comparisons of their relative effectiveness.


Conservation planning Vulnerability Reserve design Threats Uncertainty 



This research was supported by grants to the lead author from the University of Melbourne (Australia), the Menzies Centre for Australian Studies (Kings College, London, UK), the Australian Federation of University Women, the Holsworth Wildlife Research Fund (Australia), and by the European Commission as part of the BIOCORES project (PL ICA4-2000-10029). We thank Craig James for providing unpublished data. We also thank Simon Ferrier, Frank Davis, John Morrison, Daniel Wilson, and two anonymous reviewers for constructive comments on the article.


  1. Abbitt, R. J. F., Scott, J. M., Wilcove, D. S. 2000The geography of vulnerability: incorporating species geography and human development patterns into conservation planningBiological Conservation96169175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, J. C., Barnes, D. F. 1985The causes of deforestation in developing countriesAnnals of the Association of Americal Geographers75163184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andelman, S. J., Willig, M. R. 2003Present patterns and future prospects for biodiversity in the Western HemisphereEcology Letters6818824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Augustin, N. H., Cummins, R. P., French, D. D. 2001Exploring spatial vegetation dynamics using logistic regression and a multinomial logit modelJournal of Applied Ecology389911006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Awimbo, J. A., Norton, D. A., Overmars, F. B. 1996An evaluation of representativeness for nature conservation, Hoktitka Ecological District, New ZealandBiological Conservation75177186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Balmford, A., Long, A. 1994Avian endemism and forest lossNature372623624Google Scholar
  7. Barredo, J. I., Kasanko, M., McCormick, N., Lavalle, C. 2003Modelling dynamic spatial processes simulation of urban future scenarios through cellular automataLandscape and Urban Planning64145160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bates, J. M., Demos, T. C. 2001Do we need to devalue Amazonia and other large tropical forests?Diversity and Distributions7249255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beissinger, S. R., Steadman, E. C., Wohlgenant, T., Blake, G., Zack, S. 1996Null models for assessing ecosystem conservation priorities: threatened birds as titers of threatened ecosystems in South AmericaConservation Biology1013431352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Biograze. 2000. Biograze: waterpoints and wildlife—Final project report, November 2000. CSIRO, Alice SpringsGoogle Scholar
  11. Brook, B. W., Lim, L., Harden, R., Frankham, R. 1997Does population viability software predict the behaviour of real populations? A retrospective analysis of the Lord Howe Island Woodhen Tricholimnas sylvestris (Sclater)Biological Conservation82119128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brooks, T., Balmford, A., Burgess, N., Fjeldså, J., Hansen, L. A., Moore, J., Rahbek, C., Williams, P. 2001Toward a blueprint for conservation in AfricaBioscience51613624Google Scholar
  13. Burgman, M. A., Possingham, H. P., Lynch, A. J. J., Keith, D. A., Mccarthy, M. A., Hopper, S. D., Drury, W. L., Passioura, J. A., Devries, R. J. 2001A method for setting the size of plant conservation target areasConservation Biology15603616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carroll, C., Noss, R. F., Paquet, P. C., Schumaker, N. H. 2004Extinction debt of protected areas in developing landscapesConservation Biology1811101120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Castley, J. G., Kerley, G. I. H. 1996The paradox of forest conservation in South AfricaForest Ecology and Management853546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ceballos, G., Rodriguez, P., Medellin, R. A. 1998Assessing conservation priorities in megadiverse Mexico: mammalian diversity, endemicity and endangermentEcological Applications8817Google Scholar
  17. Commonwealth of Australia. 1992. Endangered Species Protection Act, No. 194Google Scholar
  18. Commonwealth of Australia. 1999. Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act, No. 91Google Scholar
  19. Cowling, R. M., Heijnis, C. E. 2001The identification of broad habitat units as biodiversity entities for systematic conservation planning in the Cape Floristic regionSouth African Journal of Botany671538Google Scholar
  20. Cowling, R. M., Pressey, R. L. 2003Introduction to systematic conservation planning in the Cape Floristic RegionBiological Conservation112113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cowling, R. M., Pressey, R. L., Rouget, M., Lombard, A. T. 2003aA conservation plan for a global biodiversity hotspot—the Cape Floristic Region, South AfricaBiological Conservation112191216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cowling, R. M., Pressey, R. L., Sims-Castley, R., Baard, E., Burgers, C. J., le Roux, A., Palmer, G. 2003bThe expert or the algorithm?—comparison of priority conservation areas in the Cape Floristic Region identified by park managers and reserve selection softwareBiological Conservation112147167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cutter, S. L. 1996Vulnerability to environmental hazardsProgress in Human Geography20529539Google Scholar
  24. Danielsen, F., Treadaway, C. G. 2004Priority conservation areas for butterflies (Lepidoptera Rhopalocera) in the Philippine islandsAnimal Conservation77992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dark, S. J. 2004The biogeography of invasive alien plants in California: an application of GIS and spatial regression analysisDiversity and Distributions1019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dilley, M., Boudreau, T. E. 2001Coming to terms with vulnerability: a critique of the food security definitionFood Policy26229247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dinerstein, E., Wikramanayake, E. D. 1993Beyond ‘hotspots’: how to prioritise investments to conserve biodiversity in the Indo-Pacific regionConservation Biology75365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dinerstein, E., G. Powell, D. Olson, E. Wikramanayake, R. Abell, C. Loucks, E. Underwood, T. Allnutt, W. Wttengel, T. Ricketts, H. Strand, S. O’Connor, and N. Burgess. 2000. A workbook for conducting biological assessments and developing biodiversity. Visions for ecoregion-based conservation. Part 1: terrestrial ecoregions. Conservation Science Program, WWF-USA, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  29. Downton, M. W. 1995Measuring tropical deforestation: development of the methodsEnvironmental Conservation22229240Google Scholar
  30. Elmqvist, T., Folke, C., Nystrom, M., Peterson, G., Bengstsson, J., Walker, B., Norberg, J. 2003Response diversity, ecosystem change, and resilienceFrontiers in Ecology and the Environment1488494Google Scholar
  31. Fairbanks, D. H. K., Benn, G. A. 2000Identifying regional landscapes for conservation planning: a case study from KwaZulu-Natal, South AfricaLandscape and Urban Planning50237257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fearnside, P. M., Ferraz, J. 1995A conservation gap analysis of Brazil’s Amazonian vegetationConservation Biology911341147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Flather, C. H., Knowles, M. S., Kendall, I. A. 1998Threatened and endangered species geography: characteristics of hot spots in the conterminous United StatesBioscience48365376Google Scholar
  34. Freitag, S., Jaarsveld, A. S. 1997Relative occupancy, endemism, taxonomic distinctiveness and vulnerability: prioritising regional conservation actionsBiodiversity and Conservation6211232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gärdenfors, U., Hilton-Taylor, C., Mace, G. M., Rodríguez, J. P. 2001The application of IUCN Red List criteria at regional levelsConservation Biology1512061212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gaston, K. J., Pressey, R. L., Margules, C. R. 2002Persistence and vulnerability: retaining biodiversity in the landscape and in protected areasJournal of Biosciences27361384Google Scholar
  37. Geoghegan, J., Villar, S. C., Klepeis, P., Mendoza, P. M., Ogneva-Himmelberger, Y., Chowdhury, R. R., Turner, B. L., Vance, C. 2001Modeling tropical deforestation in the southern Yucatán peninsular region: comparing survey and satellite dataAgriculture, Ecosystems & Environment852546Google Scholar
  38. Gido, K. B., Schaefer, J. F., Pigg, J. 2004Patterns of fish invasions in the Great Plains of North AmericaBiological Conservation118121131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Harwood, J. 2000Risk assessment and decision analysis in conservationBiological Conservation95219226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Henle, K., Davies, K. F., Kleyer, M., Margules, C., Settele, J. 2004Predictors of species sensitivity to fragmentationBiodiversity and Conservation13207251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Higgins, S. I., Richardson, D. M., Cowling, R. M., Trinder-Smith, T. H. 1999Predicting the landscape-scale distribution of alien plants and their threat to plant diversityConservation Biology13303313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Higgins, S. I., Richardson, D. M., Cowling, R. M. 2000Using a dynamic landscape model for planning the management of alien plant invasionsEcological Applications1018331848Google Scholar
  43. IUCN1994Guidelines for protected areas management categoriesIUCNCambridge, UK and Gland, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  44. IUCN. 2001. IUCN red list categories: version 3.1. IUCN Species Survival Commission, Gland and CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  45. Jackson, L. E., Bird, S. L., Matheny, R. W., O’Neill, R. V., White, D., Boesch, K. C., Koviach, J. L. 2004A regional approach to assessing land use change and resulting ecological vulnerabilityEnvironmental Modeling and Assessment94263277Google Scholar
  46. James, C. D., Landsberg, J., Morton, S.R. 1999Provision of watering points in the Australian arid zone: a review of effects on biotaJournal of Arid Environments4187121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jennings, M. D. 2000Gap analysis: concepts, methods, and recent resultsLandscape Ecology15520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kershaw, M., Mace, G. M., Williams, P. H. 1995Threatened status, rarity and diversity as alternative selection measures for protected areas: a test using Afrotropical antelopesConservation Biology9324334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kline, J. D., Azuma, D. L., Moses, A. 2003Modeling the spatially dynamic distribution of humans in the Oregon (USA) Coast RangeLandscape Ecology18347361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kohira, M., Ninomiya, I. 2003Detecting tree populations at risk for forest conservation management using single-year vs. long-term inventory dataForest Ecology and Management174423435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kremen, C., Razafimahatratra, V., Guillery, R. P., Rakotomalala, J., Weiss, A., Ratsisompatrarivo, J. S. 1999Designing the Masoala National Park in Madagascar based on biological and socioeconomic dataConservation Biology1310551068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lambin, E. F. 1999Monitoring forest degradation in tropical regions by remote sensing: some methodological issuesGlobal Ecology and Biogeography8191198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lambin, E. F., Ehrlich, D. 1997The identification of tropical deforestation fronts at broad spatial scalesInternational Journal of Remote Sensing1835513568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lambin, E. F., Turner, B. L., Geist, H. J., Agbola, S. B., Angelsen, A., Bruce, J. W., Coomes, O. T., Dirzo, R., Fischer, G., Folke, C., George, P. S., Homewood, K., Imbernon, J., Leemans, R., Li, X. B., Moran, E. F., Mortimore, M., Ramakrishnan, P. S., Richards, J. F., Skånes, H., Steffen, W., Stone, G. D., Svedin, U., Veldkamp, T. A., Vogel, C., Xu, J. C. 2001The causes of land-use and land-cover change: moving beyond the mythsGlobal environmental change. Human and Policy Dimensions11261269Google Scholar
  55. Lathrop, R. G., Bognar, J. A. 1998Applying GIS and landscape ecological principles to evaluate land conservation alternativesLandscape and Urban Planning412741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Laurance, W. F., Cochrane, M. A., Bergen, S., Fearnside, P. M., Delamonica, P., Barber, C., D’Angelo, S., Fernandes, T. 2001The future of the Brazilian AmazonScience291438439CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Lawler, J. J., White, D., Master, L. L. 2003Integrating representation and vulnerability: two approaches for prioritising areas for conservationEcological Applications1317621772Google Scholar
  58. Linkie, M., Smith, R. J., Leader-Williams, N. 2004Mapping and predicting deforestation patterns in the lowlands of SumatraBiodiversity and Conservation1318091818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lips, K. R., Reeve, J. D., Witters, L. R. 2003Ecological traits predicting amphibian population declines in Central AmericaConservation Biology1710781088CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ludeke, A. K., Maggio, R. C., Reid, L. M. 1990An analysis of anthropogenic deforestation using logistic regression and GISJournal of Environmental Management31247259Google Scholar
  61. MacDougall, A., Loo, J. 2002Land use history, plant rarity, and protected area adequacy in an intensively managed forest landscapeJournal for Nature Conservation10171183Google Scholar
  62. Maddock, A., Benn, G. A. 2000Identification of conservation-worthy areas in Northern Zululand, South AfricaConservation Biology14155166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Margules, C. R., Pressey, R. L. 2000Systematic conservation planningNature405243253CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. McConnell, W. J., Sweeney, S. P., Mulley, B. 2004Physical and social access to land spatio-temporal patterns of agricultural expansion in MadagascarAgriculture, Ecosystems & Environment101171184Google Scholar
  65. McKee, J. K., Sciulli, P. W., Fooce, C. D., Waite, T. A. 2004Forecasting global biodiversity threats associated with human population growthBiological Conservation115161164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Menon, S., Bawa, K. S. 1998Tropical deforestation: reconciling disparities in estimates for IndiaAmbio27576577Google Scholar
  67. Menon, S., Pontius, R. G., Rose, J., Khan, M. I., Bawa, K. S. 2001Identifying conservation-priority areas in the tropics: a land-use change modeling approachConservation Biology15502512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mertens, B., Lambin, E. F. 1997Spatial modelling of deforestation in southern Cameroon: spatial disaggregation of diverse deforestation processesApplied Geography17143162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mittermeier, R. A., Myers, N., da Fonesca, G. A. B., Olivieri, S. 1998Biodiversity hotspots and major tropical wilderness areas: approaches to setting conservation prioritiesConservation Biology12516520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Moyle, P. B., Randall, P. J. 1998Evaluating the biotic integrity of watersheds in the Sierra Nevada, CaliforniaConservation Biology1213181326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Myers, N. 1988Threatened biotas: ‘hot spots’ in tropical forestsEnvironmentalist8187208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Myers, N., Mittermeier, R. A., Mittermeier, C. G., da Fonseca, G. A. B., Kent, J. 2000Biodiversity hotspots for conservation prioritiesNature403853858CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Neke, K. S., du Plessis, M. A. 2004The threat of transformation: quantifying the vulnerability of grasslands in South AfricaConservation Biology18466477Google Scholar
  74. Nel, J. L., Richardson, D. M., Rouget, M., Mgidi, T. N., Mdzeke, N., Le Maitre, D. C., Van Wilgen, B. W., Schonegevel, L., Henderson, L., Neser, S. 2004A proposed classification of invasive alien plant species in South Africa towards prioritizing species and areas for management actionSouth African Journal of Science1005364Google Scholar
  75. Nilsson, C., Grelsson, G. 1995The fragility of ecosystems: a reviewJournal of Applied Ecology32677692Google Scholar
  76. Noss, R. F. 1985On characterizing presettlement vegetation: how and whyNatural Areas Journal5519Google Scholar
  77. Noss, R. F., Carroll, C., Vance-Borland, K., Wuerthner, G. 2002A multicriteria assessment of the irreplaceability and vulnerability of sites in the Greater Yellowstone EcosystemConservation Biology16895908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. O’Grady, J. J., Reed, D. H., Brook, B. W., Frankham, R. 2004What are the best correlates of predicted extinction risk? Biological Conservation118513520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Pearce, J. L., Cherry, K., Drielsma, M., Ferrier, S., Whish, G. 2001Incorporating expert opinion and fine-scale vegetation mapping into statistical models of faunal distributionJournal of Applied Ecology38412424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pereira, H. M., Daily, G. C., Roughgarden, J. 2004A framework for assessing the relative vulnerability of species to land-use changeEcological Applications14730742Google Scholar
  81. Peres, C. A., Terborgh, J. W. 1995Amazonian nature reserves: an analysis of the defensibility status of existing conservation units and design criteria for the futureConservation Biology93446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Pimm, S. L., Russell, G. J., Gittleman, J. L., Brooks, T. M. 1995The future of biodiversityScience269347351Google Scholar
  83. Possingham, H. 1996Risk and uncertainty: mathematical models and decision making in conservation biologySpellerberg, I. F. eds. Conservation biologyLongmanSingapore222234Google Scholar
  84. Power, M. 1993The predictive validation of ecological and environmental modelsEcological Modelling683350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pressey, R. L., Cowling, R. M. 2001Reserve selection algorithms and the real worldConservation Biology15275277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Pressey, R. L., Taffs, K. H. 2001Scheduling conservation action in production landscapes: priority areas in western New South Wales defined by irreplaceability and vulnerability to vegetation lossBiological Conservation100355376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Pressey, R. L., Ferrier, S., Hager, T. C., Woods, C. A., Tully, S. L., Weinman, K. M. 1996How well protected are the forests of north eastern New South Wales? Analyses of forest environments in relation to formal protection measures, land tenure and vulnerability to clearingForest Ecology and Management85311333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Pressey, R. L., Hager, T. C., Ryan, K. M., Schwarz, J., Wall, S., Ferrier, S., Creaser, P. M. 2000Using abiotic data for conservation assessments over extensive regions: quantitative methods applied across New South Wales, AustraliaBiological Conservation965582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Pressey, R. L., Cowling, R. M., Rouget, M. 2003Formulating conservation targets for biodiversity pattern and process in the Cape Floristic Region, South AfricaBiological Conservation11299127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Pressey, R. L., Watts, M. E., Barrett, T. W. 2004Is maximizing protection the same as minimizing loss? Efficiency and retention as alternative measures of the effectiveness of proposed reservesEcology Letters710351046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Pringle, H. J., Landsberg, J. 2004Predicting the distribution of livestock grazing pressure in rangelandsAustral Ecology293139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Reyers, B., Fairbanks, D. H. K., Van Jaarsveld, A. S., Thompson, M. 2001Priority areas for the conservation of South African vegetation: a coarse-filter approachDiversity and Distributions77995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Reyers, B. 2004Incorporating anthropogenic threats into evaluations of regional biodiversity and prioritisation of conservation areas in the Limpopo Province, South AfricaBiological Conservation118521531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Richter, B. D., Braun, D. P., Mendelson, M. A., Master, L. L. 1997Threats to imperiled freshwater faunaConservation Biology1110811093CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Ricketts, T., Imhoff, M. 2003Biodiversity, urban areas, and agriculture locating priority ecoregions for conservationConservation Ecology81Google Scholar
  96. Ricketts, T. H., Dinerstein, E., Olson, D. M., Loucks, C., Eichbaum, W., Kavanagh, K., Hedao, P., Hurley, P., Carney, K. M., Abel, R., Walters, S. 1999Terrestrial ecoregions of North America: a conservation assessmentIsland PressWashington, D.CGoogle Scholar
  97. Rouget, M. 2003Measuring conservation value at fine and broad scales: implications for a diverse and fragmented region, the Agulhas PlainBiological Conservation112217232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Rouget, M., Richardson, D. M., Cowling, R. M., Lloyd, J. W., Lombard, A. T. 2003Current patterns of habitat transformation and future threats to biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems of the Cape Floristic Region, South AfricaBiological Conservation1126385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Rowe, W. D. 1977An anatomy of riskWileyNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  100. Schneider, L. C., Pontius, R. G. 2001Modelling land use change in the Ipswich watershed, Massachusetts, USAAgriculture, Ecosystems & Environment858394Google Scholar
  101. Schumaker, N. H., Ernst, T., White, D., Baker, J., Haggerty, P. 2004Projecting wildlife responses to alternative future landscapes in Oregon’s Willamette BasinEcological Applications14381400Google Scholar
  102. Scott, J. M., Davis, F., Csuti, B., Noss, R., Butterfield, B., Groves, C., Anderson, H., Caicco, S., d’Erchia, F., Edwards, T. C., Ulliman, J., Wright, R. G. 1993Gap analysis: a geographic approach to protection of biological diversityWildlife Monograph123141Google Scholar
  103. Scott, J. M., Davis, F. W., McGhie, R. G., Wright, R. G., Groves, C., Estes, J. 2001Nature reserves: Do they capture the full range of America’s biological diversity?Ecological Applications119991007Google Scholar
  104. Serneels, S., Lambin, E. F. 2001Proximate causes of land use change in Narok District, Kenya: a spatial statistical modelAgriculture, Ecosystems & Environment856581Google Scholar
  105. Shaffer, M. L. 1990Population viability analysisConservation Biology43940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Sierra, R., Campos, F., Chamberlin, J. 2002Assessing biodiversity conservation priorities: ecosystem risk and representativeness in continental EcuadorLandscape and Urban Planning5995110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Sisk, T. D., Lanner, A. E., Switky, K. R., Ehrlich, P. R. 1994Identifying extinction threats: global analyses of the distribution of biodiversity and the expansion of the human enterpriseBioscience44592604Google Scholar
  108. Soares-Filho, B., Alencar, A., Nepstad, D., Cerqueira, G., Diaz, M. D. V., Rivero, S., Solórzano, L., Voll, E. 2004Simulating the response of land-cover changes to road paving and governance along a major Amazon highway: the Santarem-Cuiaba corridorGlobal Change Biology10745764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Stoms, D. M. 2000GAP management status and regional indicators of threats to biodiversityLandscape Ecology152133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Theobald, D. M., Miller, J. M., Hobbs, N. T. 1997Estimating the cumulative effects of development on wildlife habitatLandscape and Urban Planning392536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Theobald, D. M., Schrupp, D., O’Brien, L. E. 2001A method to assess risk of habitat loss to developmentGAP Analysis Program Bulletin103640Google Scholar
  112. Thompson, K., Jones, A. 1999Human population density and prediction of local plant extinction in BritainConservation Biology13185189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Treweek, J., Veitch, N. 1996The potential application of GIS and remotely sensed data to the ecological assessment of proposed new road schemesGlobal Ecology and Biogeography Letters5249257Google Scholar
  114. Troumbis, A. Y., Dimitrakopoulos, P. G. 1998Geographic coincidence of diversity threatspots for three taxa and conservation planning in GreeceBiological Conservation8416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Turner, B. L., Villar, S. C., Foster, D., Geoghegan, J., Keys, E., Klepeis, P., Lawrence, D., Mendoza, P. M., Manson, S., Ognerva-Himmelberger, Y., Plotkin, A. B., Salicrup, D. P., Chowdhury, R. R., Savitsky, B., Schneider, L., Schmook, B., Vance, C. 2001Deforestation in the southern Yucatan peninsular region: an integrative approachForest Ecology and Management154353370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Veech, J. A. 2003Incorporating socioeconomic factors into the analysis of biodiversity hotspotsApplied Geography237388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Veldkamp, A., Fresco, L. O. 1996CLUE-CR: an integrated multi-scale model to simulate land use change scenarios in Costa RicaEcological Modelling91231248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Villa, F., McLeod, H. 2002Environmental vulnerability indicators for environmental planning and decision-making: guidelines and applicationsEnvironmental Management29335348CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. White, D., Minotti, P. G., Barczak, M. J., Sifneos, J. C., Freemark, K. E., Santelmann, M. V., Steinitz, C. F., Kiester, A. R., Preston, E. M. 1997Assessing risks to biodiversity from future landscape changeConservation Biology11349360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Wickham, J. D., O’Neill, R. V., Jones, K. B. 2000A geography of ecosystem vulnerabilityLandscape Ecology15495504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Wikramanayake, E. D., Dinerstein, E., Robinson, J. G., Karanth, U., Rabinowitz, A., Olson, D., Mathew, T., Hedao, P., Conner, M., Hemley, G., Bolze, D. 1998An ecology-based method for defining priorities for large mammal conservation: The tiger as case studyConservation Biology12865878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Wilson, K. A., Newton, A. N., Echeverría, C., Weston, C. J., Burgman, M. A. 2005A vulnerability analysis of the temperate forests of south central ChileBiological Conservation122922CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Wooldridge, S., Done, T. 2004Learning to predict large-scale coral bleaching from past events. A Bayesian approach using remotely sensed data, in-situ data, and environmental proxiesCoral Reefs2396108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. WWF and ICIMOD. 2001. Overarching human pressures on biodiversity in the eastern Himalaya. Pages 101–126 in E. D. Wikramanayake, C. Carpenter, H. Strand, and M. McKnight (eds.), Ecoregion-based conservation in the Eastern Himalaya. Identifying important areas for biodiversity conservation. WWF Nepal Program, KathmanduGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kerrie Wilson
    • 1
  • Robert L. Pressey
    • 2
  • Adrian Newton
    • 3
  • Mark Burgman
    • 4
  • Hugh Possingham
    • 5
  • Chris Weston
    • 6
  1. 1.The Ecology CentreThe University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Environment and ConservationRobert . L. PresseyArmidaleAustralia
  3. 3.School of Conservation SciencesBournemouth UniversityTalbot Campus PooleUnited Kingdom
  4. 4.School of BotanyUniversity of MelbourneMelbourneVictoriaAustralia
  5. 5.The Ecology CentreThe University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  6. 6.Forest Science CentreUniversity of MelbourneCreswickAustralia

Personalised recommendations