Environmental Management

, Volume 35, Issue 6, pp 703–715 | Cite as

Adaptive Capacity and Community-Based Natural Resource Management

FORUM

ABSTRACT

Why do some community-based natural resource management strategies perform better than others? Commons theorists have approached this question by developing institutional design principles to address collective choice situations, while other analysts have critiqued the underlying assumptions of community-based resource management. However, efforts to enhance community-based natural resource management performance also require an analysis of exogenous and endogenous variables that influence how social actors not only act collectively but do so in ways that respond to changing circumstances, foster learning, and build capacity for management adaptation. Drawing on examples from northern Canada and Southeast Asia, this article examines the relationship among adaptive capacity, community-based resource management performance, and the socio-institutional determinants of collective action, such as technical, financial, and legal constraints, and complex issues of politics, scale, knowledge, community and culture. An emphasis on adaptive capacity responds to a conceptual weakness in community-based natural resource management and highlights an emerging research and policy discourse that builds upon static design principles and the contested concepts in current management practice.

Keywords

Adaptation Capacity Community-based management Collaboration Participatory management Resilience Sustainability 

Notes

Acknowledgments

I would like to acknowledge R. McLain, M. Shannon, an anonymous reviewer, and the editor for helpful comments on an earlier draft. I gratefully acknowledge the International Development Research Centre for supporting research activities in Indonesia and the Social Science and Humanities Research Council for research support in northern Canada.

Literature Cited

  1. Adams, W., Brockington, D., Dyson, J., Vira, B. 2003Managing tragedies: Understanding conflict over common pool resourcesScience30219151916CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adger, N. 2003

    Social aspects of adaptive capacity

    Smith, J.Klein, J.Huq, S. eds. Climate change, adaptive capacity and developmentImperial College PressLondon2949
    Google Scholar
  3. Adger, N., Brooks, N., Bentham, G., Agnew, M., Eriksen, S. 2004New indicators of vulnerability and adaptive capacity. Technical Report No. 7. Tyndall Centre for Climate Change ResearchUniversity of East AngliaNorwich, United Kingdom122 ppGoogle Scholar
  4. Agrawal, A. 2002

    Common resources and institutional sustainability

    Ostrom, E.Dietz, T.Dolšak, N.Stern, P. C.Stovich, S.Weber, E. U. eds. The drama of the commonsNational Academy PressWashington, DC4185
    Google Scholar
  5. Armitage, D. R. 2002Socio-institutional dynamics and the political ecology of mangrove forest conservation in Central Sulawesi, IndonesiaGlobal Environmental Change12203217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Armitage, D. R. 2003Traditional agroecological knowledge, adaptive management and the Socio-politics of environmental conservation in Central Sulawesi, IndonesiaEnvironmental Conservation307990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. D. R. Armitage (2004) Nature–society dynamics, policy narratives and ecosystem management: integrating perspectives about upland change and complexity in Central Sulawesi, IndonesiaEcosystems. Available online.Google Scholar
  8. Armitage, D.R., and A. Rizal. In press. Collaborative management in the coastal zone of Banawa Selatan, Central Sulawesi: Adat practices, institutions and the regional autonomy process. In T. Babcock, B. Nurkin, and S. Wismer (eds.). Sailing while building the ship: Enhancing environmental management in Indonesia. University of Waterloo, Department of Geography Publications. Waterloo, OntarioGoogle Scholar
  9. Baland, J. M., Platteau, J. P. 1996Halting the degradation of natural resources: Is there a role for rural communities? Clarendon PressOxfordGoogle Scholar
  10. Barr, C., and I. A. P. Resosudarmo. 2002. Decentralisation of forest administration in Indonesia: Implications for forest sustainability, community livelihoods, and economic development. Center for International Forestry Research, Bogor, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  11. Barrett, C., Brandon, K., Gibson, C., Gjertsen, H. 2001Conserving biodiversity amid weak institutionsBioScience51497502Google Scholar
  12. Berkes, F.Folke, C. eds. 1998Linking social and ecological systems: Management practices and social mechanisms for building resilienceCambridge University PressCambridgeGoogle Scholar
  13. Berkes, F.Folke, C.Colding, J. eds. 2003Navigating social–ecological systems: Building resilience for complexity and changeCambridge University PressCambridgeGoogle Scholar
  14. Berkes, F., Bankes, N., Marschke, M., Armitage, D., Clark, D. 2005

    Cross-scale institutions and building resilience in the Canadian North

    Berkes, F.Huebert, R.Fast, H.Manseau, M.Diduck, A. eds. Breaking ice: Renewable resource and ocean management in the Canadian NorthArctic Institute of North America and University of Calgary PressCalgary
    Google Scholar
  15. Borrini-Feyerband, G. 1996Collaborative management of protected areas: Tailoring the approach to the contextIUCNGland, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  16. Brosius, J., Tsing, A., Zerner, C. 1998Representing communities: Histories and politics of community-based resource managementSociety and Natural Resources11157168Google Scholar
  17. Buck, L.Geisler, C.Schelhas and , J.Wollenberg , E. eds. 2001Biological diversity: Balancing interests through adaptive collaborative managementCRC PressBoca Raton, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  18. Colchester, M. 1994Sustaining the forests: The community-based approach in South and South-East AsiaDevelopment and Change2569100Google Scholar
  19. Dahl, J. 2000Saqqaq: An Inuit hunting community in the modern worldUniversity of Toronto PressTorontoGoogle Scholar
  20. Dietz, T., Ostrom, E., Stern, P. 2003The struggle to govern the commonsScience30219071912CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Folke, C., Colding, J., Berkes, F. 2003

    Synthesis: Building resilience and adaptive capacity in socio-ecological systems

    Berkes, F.Folke, C.Colding, J. eds. Navigating social–ecological systems: Building resilience for complexity and changeCambridge University PressCambridge352387
    Google Scholar
  22. Gunderson, L. H. 2003

    Adaptive dancing: Interactions between social resilience and ecological crises

    Berkes, F.Folke, C.Colding, J. eds. Navigating social–ecological systems: Building resilience for complexity and changeCambridge University PressCambridge3352
    Google Scholar
  23. Gunderson, L. H.Holling , C. S. eds. 2002Panarchy: Understanding transformations in human and natural systemsIsland PressWashington DCGoogle Scholar
  24. Holling, C. S., Gunderson, L., Peterson, G. 2002

    Sustainability and panarchies

    Gundersonand, L. H.Holling, C. S. eds. Panarchy: Understanding transformations in human and natural systemsIsland PressWashington DC63102
    Google Scholar
  25. Jentoft, S. 2000The community: A missing link of fisheries managementMarine Policy245359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Johannes, R. 2002the renaissance of community-based marine resource management in OceaniaAnnual Review of Ecology and Systematics33317340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kellert, S., Mehta, J., Ebbin, S., Litchtenfeld, L. 2000Community natural resource management: promise, rhetoric and realitySociety and Natural Resources13705715CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lane, M. B. 2001Affirming new directions in planning theory: Comanagement of protected areasSociety and Natural Resources14657671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Li, T. M. 2001Masyarakat Adat, difference, and the limits of recognition in Indonesia’s forest zoneModern Asia Studies35645676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Li, T. M. 2002aEngaging simplifications: Community-based resource management, market processes and state agendas in upland Southeast AsiaWorld Development30265283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Li, T. M. 2002bLocal histories, global markets: Cocoa and class in Upland SulawesiDevelopment and Change33415437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Marschke, M., Nong, K. 2003Adaptive co-management: Lessons from Coastal CambodiaCanadian Journal of Development Studies24369382Google Scholar
  33. McCarthy, J. F. 2001. Decentralisation, local communities and forest management in Barito Selatan, District, Central Kalimantan. Center for International Forestry Research, Bogor, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  34. McCay, B., Jentoft, S. 1998Market or community failure? Critical perspectives on common property researchHuman Organization572129Google Scholar
  35. Nadasdy, P. 2003Reevaluating the co-management success storyArctic56367380Google Scholar
  36. NRTEE (National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy). 2001. Aboriginal communities and non-renewable resource development. National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, Ottawa, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  37. Olsson, P., C. Folke, and T. Hahn. 2004. Socio-ecological transformation for ecosystem management: The development of adaptive co-management of a wetland landscape in southern Sweden. Ecology and Society 9(4):2. Available at: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol9/iss4/art2
  38. Ostrom, E. 1990Governing the commons: The evolution of institutions for collective actionCambridge University PressCambridgeGoogle Scholar
  39. Ostrom, E.Dietz, T.Dolšak, N.Stern, P.C.Stovich, S.Weber , and E.U. eds. 2002The drama of the commonsNational Academy PressWashington, DCGoogle Scholar
  40. Peet, R.Watts , and M. eds. 1996Liberation ecologies: Environment, development, social movementsRoutledgeLondonGoogle Scholar
  41. Pinkerton, E. 1989Cooperative management of local fisheries: New directions for improved management and community developmentUniversity of British Columbia PressVancouverGoogle Scholar
  42. Pomeroy, R. S. 1996Community-based and co-management institutions for sustainable coastal fisheries management in Southeast AsiaOcean and Coastal Management27143162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pomeroy, R. S., Katon, B. M., Harkes, I. 2001Conditions affecting the success of fisheries co-management: Lessons from Asia. Marine Policy25197208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Potter, L., and S. Badcock. 2001. The effects of Indonesia’s decentralization on forests and estate crops in Riau Province: Case studies of the original districts of Kampar and Indragiri Hulu. Center for International Forestry Research, Bogor, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  45. Pretty, J. 2003Social capital and the collective management of resourcesScience30219121914CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Putnam, R. 1995Bowling alone: America’s declining social capitalJournal of Democracy66578Google Scholar
  47. Ruitenbeek, J., and C. Cartier. 2001. The invisible wand: Adaptive co-management as an emergent strategy in complex bio-economic systems. Occasional Paper No. 34. Centre for International Forestry Research, Bogor, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  48. Satria, A., and Y. Matsuda. In press. Decentralization of fisheries management in Indonesia. Marine PolicyGoogle Scholar
  49. Smith, J., Klein, J., Huq, S. 2003Climate change, adaptive capacity and developmentImperial College PressLondonGoogle Scholar
  50. Smith, P., Saint-Onge, H. 1996The evolutionary organization: Avoiding a Titanic fateLearning Organization3421Google Scholar
  51. Stern, P., Dietz, T., Dolsak, N., Ostrom, E., Stonich, S. 2002

    Knowledge and questions after 15 years of research

    Ostrom, E.Dietz, T.Dolšak, N.Stern, P. C.Stovich, S.Weber, E. U. eds. The drama of the commonsNational Academy PressWashington, DC445489
    Google Scholar
  52. Thorburn, C. 2002Regime change: Prospects for community-based resource management in post-new order IndonesiaSociety and Natural Resources15617628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Usher, P. 2003Environment, race and nation reconsidered: Reflections on Aboriginal land claims in CanadaCanadian Geographer47356382Google Scholar
  54. Walker, B., S. Carpenter, J. Anderies, N. Abel, G. Cumming, M. Janssen, L. Lebel, J. Norberg, G. Peterson, and R. Pritchard. 2002. Resilience management in socio-ecological systems: A working hypothesis for a participatory approach. Conservation Ecology 6(1):14 [online]. Available at http://www.consecol.org/vol16/iss1/art14Google Scholar
  55. Weitzner, V., and M. Manseau. 2001. Taking the pulse of collaborative management in Canada’s National Parks and National Park Reserves: Voices from the field. Pages 253–259 in Proceedings of the 11th Conference on Research and Resource Management in Parks and on Public Lands. The George Wright Society, Hancock, MichiganGoogle Scholar
  56. White, G. 2000And now for something completely northern: Institutions of Governance in the Territorial NorthJournal of Canadian Studies358099Google Scholar
  57. Zerner, C. eds. 2000People, plants, and justice: The politics of nature conservationColumbia University PressNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  58. Zimmerer, K.Bassett, T. J. eds. 2003Political ecology: An integrative approach to geography and environment-development studiesGuilford PublicationsNew YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geography and Environmental StudiesWilfrid Lauvier UniversityWaterlooCanada

Personalised recommendations