Advertisement

Environmental Management

, Volume 33, Supplement 1, pp S87–S107 | Cite as

Available Fuel Dynamics in Nine Contrasting Forest Ecosystems in North America

  • Soung-Ryoul Ryu
  • Jiquan Chen
  • Thomas R. Crow
  • Sari C. Saunders
Article

Abstract

Available fuel and its dynamics, both of which affect fire behavior in forest ecosystems, are direct products of ecosystem production, decomposition, and disturbances. Using published ecosystem models and equations, we developed a simulation model to evaluate the effects of dynamics of aboveground net primary production (ANPP), carbon allocation, residual slash, decomposition, and disturbances (harvesting, tree mortality, and fire frequency) on available fuel (AF; megagrams per hectare). Both the magnitude and the time of maximum ANPP as well as the duration of high productivity condition had a large influence on AF. Productivity and decomposition were two dominant driving factors determining AF. The amount of AF in arid or cold regions would be affected more by climate change than that in other ecosystems. Frequent fire was an effective tool to control the AF, and medium frequency fire produced the most AF. Disturbances increased AF very rapidly in a short period. The results can be used as a basic knowledge to develop a fire management plan under various climate conditions.

Keywords

Available fuel Decomposition Ecosystem productivity Tree mortality Fire frequency Fire intensity Harvesting 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This publication was supported by the Joint Fire Science Program of the USDA Forest Service, North Central Research Station, and University of Toledo. We are thankful for the helpful advice and comments of Dr. Daryl Moorhead, Dr. Yude Pan, Dr. Harbin Li, Dr. Malcolm North, and the LEES Lab of the University of Toledo.

References

  1. 1.
    Aamlid, D., Torseth, K., Venn, K., Stuanes, A. O., Solberg, S., Hylen, G., Christophersen, N., Framstad, E. 2000Changes of forest health in Norweigian boreal forests during 15 years.Forest Ecology and Management127103118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aber, J. D., Federer, C. A. 1992A generalized, lumped-parameter model of photosynthesis, evapotranspiration and net primary production in temperate and boreal forest ecosystem.Oecologia92463474Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aber, J. D., Ollinger, S. V., Federer, C. A., Reich, P. B., Goulden, M. L., Kicklighter, D. W., Melillo, J. M., Lathrop, R. G.,Jr. 1995Predicting the effects of climate change on water yield and forest production in the northeastern United States.Climate Research5207222Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aber, J. D., Reich, P. B., Goulden, M. L. 1996Extrapolating leaf CO2 exchange to the canopy: a generalized model of forest photosynthesis compared with measurements by eddy correlation.Oecologia106257265Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Abrams, M. D., Copenheaver, C. A., Black, B. A., van de Gevel, S. 2001Dendroecology and climatic impacts for a relict, old-growth, bog forest in the Ridge and Valley Province of central Pennsylvania, U.S.A.Canadian Journal of Botany79(1)5869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Barbour, M. G., Billings, W. D. 1988North American terrestrial vegetation.Cambridge, New York434 pp.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bessie, W. C., Johnson, E. A. 1995The relative importance of fuels and weather on fire behaviour in subalpine forests.Ecology76(3)747762Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Boerner, R. E. J., Morris, S. J., Sutherland, E. K., Hutchinson, T. F. 2000Spatial variability in soil nitrogen dynamics after prescribed burning in Ohio mixed-oak forests.Landscape Ecology15425439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bond, W. J., van Wilgen, B. W. 1996Fire and PlantsChapman & HallNew York263 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Boychuk, D., Perera, A. H., Ter-Mikaelian, M. T., Martell, D. L., Li, C. 1997Modelling the effect of spatial scale and correlated fire disturbances on forest age distribution.Ecological Modelling95145164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Brais, S., David, P., Ouimet, R. 2000Impacts of wild fire severity and salvage harvesting on the nutrient balance of jack pine and black spruce boreal stands.Forest Ecology and Management137231243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brown, P. M., Kaufmann, M. R., Shepperd, W. D. 1999Long-term, landscape patterns of past fire events in a montane ponderosa pine forest of central Colorado.Landscape Ecology14513532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cain, M. D., Wigley, T. B., Reed, D. J. 1998Prescribed fire effects on structure in uneven-aged stands of loblolly and shortleaf pines.Wildlife Society Bulletin26(2)209219Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Clark, J. S. 1990Fire and climate change during the last 750 yr in Northwestern Minnesota.Ecological Monographs60135159Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cochrane, M. A. 2001Synergistic interactions between habitat fragmentation and fire in evergreen tropical forests.Conservation Biology1515151521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cumming, S. G. 2001Forest type and wildfire in the Alberta boreal mixedwood: what do fires burn?.Ecological Applications1197110Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    DeBano, L. F., D. G. Neary, and P. F. Ffolliott. 1998. Fire’s effects on ecosystems. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 333 pp. Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dumontet, S., Dinel, H., Scopa, A., Mazzatura, A., Saracino, A. 1996Post-fire soil microbial biomass and nutrient content of a pine forest soil from a dunal Mediterranean environment.Soil Biological Biochemestry.28(10/11)14671475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Euskirchen, E. S., Chen, J., Li, H., Gustafson, E. J., Crow, T. R. 2002Modeling landscape net ecosystem productivity (LandNEP) under alternative management regimes.Ecological Modelling1547591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Flannigan, M. D., Stocks, B. J., Wotton, B. M. 2000Climate change and forest fires.The Science of the Total Environment262221229CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Franklin, J., Syphard, A. D., Mladenoff, D. J., He, H. S., Simons, D. K., Martin, R. P., Deutschman, D., O’Leary, J. F. 2001Simulating the effects of different fire regimes on plant functional groups in southern California.Ecological Modelling142261283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Frelich, L. E., Lorimer, C. G. 1991Natural disturbance regimes in hemlock–hardwood forests of the upper great lakes region.Ecological Monographs61145164Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gardner, R. H., W. H. Rommer, and M. G. Turner. 1999. Predicting forest fire effect at landscape scales. Pages 163–185 in D. J. Mladenoff and W. L. Baker (eds.), Spatial modeling of forest landscape change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gholz, H. L. 1982Environmental limits on abovegroud net primary production, leaf area, and biomass in vegetation zones of the pacific Northwest.Ecology63(2)469481Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Goodale, C. L., Aber, J. D., Farrell, E. P. 1998Predicting the relative sensitivity of forest production in Ireland to site quality and climate change.Climate Research105167Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gower, S. T., Krankina, O., Olson, R. J., Apps, M., Linder, S., Wang, C. 2001Net primary production and carbon allocation patterns of boreal forest ecosystems.Ecological Applications11(5)13951411Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hargrove, W. W., Gardner, R. H., Turner, M. G., Romme, W. H., Despain, D. G. 2000Simulating fire patterns in heterogeneous landscapes.Ecological Modelling135243263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Harper, V. L. 1965. Silvics of forest trees of the United States. Agricultureal Handbook No. 271. USDA Forest Service, Washingon DC, 762 pp.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    He, H. S., Mladenoff, D. J., Gustafson, E. J. 2002Study of landscape change under forest harvesting and climate warming-induced fire disturbance.Forest Ecology and Management155257270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Iverson, L. R., Prasad, A. M. 2002Potential redistribution of tree species habitat under five climate change scenarios in the eastern US.Forest Ecology and Management155205222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jenkins, J. C., Kicklighter, D. W., Ollinger, S. V., Aber, J. D., Melillo, J. M. 1999Sources of variability in net primary production predictions at a regional scale: a comparison using PnET-II and TEM 4.0 in Northeastern US forests.Ecosystems2555570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Johnson, E. A., Larsen, C. P. S. 1991Climateically induced change in fire frequency in the southern Canadian rockies.Ecology72194201Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Karafyllidis, I., Thanailakis, A. 1997A model for predicting forest fire spreading using cellular automata.Ecological Modelling998797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kasischke, E. S., K. P. O’Neill, N. F. F. French, L. L. Bourgeau-Chavez. 1994. Controls on patterns of biomass burning in Alaskan boreal forests. Pages 173–196 in E. S. Kasischke and B. J. Stocks (eds.), Fire, climate change, and carbon cycling in the boreal forest. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kimmins. 1987. Forest ecology. Macmillan, Company. New York, 531 pp.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    King, A. W., Post, W. M., Wullschleger, S. D. 1997The potential response of terrestrial carbon storage to changes in climate and atmospheric CO2.Climatic Change35199227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Landsberg, J. J., Gower, S. T. 1997Applications of physiological ecology to forest managementAcademic PressSan Diego354 ppGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Levin, S. A. 1992The problem of pattern and scale in ecology.Ecology7319431967Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Levine, J. S., and W. R. Cofer, III. 1994. Boreal forest fire emissions and the chemistry of the atmosphere. Pages 31–48 in E.S. Kasischke and B.J. Stocks (eds.), Fire, climate change, and carbon cycling in the boreal forest. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Masters, G. J., Brown, V. K., Clarke, I. P., Whittaker, J. B., Hollier, J. A. 1998Direct and indirect effects of climate change on insect herbivores: Auchenorrhyncha (Homoptera).Ecological Entomology234552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    McClaugherty, C. A., Pastor, J., Aber, J. D., Mellilo, J. M. 1985Forest litter decomposition in relation to soil nitrogen dynamics and litter quality.Ecology66(1)266275Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Meentemeyer, V. 1978Macroclimate and lignin control of litter decomposition rates.Ecology59465472Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Melillo, J. M., Aber, J. D., Muratore, J. F. 1982Nitrogen and lignin control of hardwood leaf litter decomposition dynamics.Ecology63(3)621626Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Mickler, R. A., Earnhardt, T. S., Moore, J. A. 2002Regional estimation of current and future forest biomass.Environmental Pollution16S7S16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Miller, C., Urban, D. L. 2000Connectivity of forest fuels and surface fire regimes.Landscape Ecology15145154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Monk, C. D., Child, G. I., Nicholson, S. A. 1970Biomass, litter and leaf surface area estimates of an oak-hickory forest.Oikos21138141Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Moorhead, D. L., Reynolds, J. F. 1991A general model of litter decomposition in the northern Chihuahuan Desert.Ecological Modelling56197219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Nadelhoffer, K. J., Aber, J. D., Melillo, J. M. 1985Fine foots, net primary production, and soil nitrogen availability: a new hypothesis.Ecology66(4)13771390Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Noormets, A., McDonald, E. P., Dickson, R. E., Kruger, E. L., Sober, A., Isebrands, J. G., Karnosky, D. F. 2001The effect of elevated carbon dioxide and ozone on leaf- and branch-level photosynthesis and potential plant-level carbon gain in aspen.Trees15262270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Norby, R. J., O’Neill, E. G., Hood, W. G., Luxmoore, R. J. 1987Carbon allocation, root exudation and mycorrhizal colonization of Pinus echinata seedlings grown under CO2 enrichment.Tree Physiology3203210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Overpeck, J. T., Rind, D., Goldberg, R. 1990Climate-induced changes n forest disturbance and vegetation.Nature3435153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Pan, Y., Melillo, J. M., McGuire, A. D., Kicklighter, D. W., Pitelka, L. F., Hibbard, K., Pierce, L. L., Running, S. W., Ojima, D. S., Parton, W. J., Schimel, D. S. 1998Modeled responses of terrestrial ecosystems to elevated atmospheric CO2: a comparison of simulations by the biogeochemical models of the vegetation/ecosystem modeling and analysis project (VEMAP).Oecologia114389404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Peng, C. 2000Understanding the role of forest simulation models in sustainable forest management.Environmental Impact Assessment Review20481501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Schlesinger, W. H., Gill, D. S. 1980Biomass, production, and changes in the availability of light, water, and nutrients during the development of pure stands of the chaparral shrub, Ceanothus Megacarpus, after fire.Ecology61781789Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Schmidt, K. M., J. P. Menakis, C. C. Hardy, W. J. Hann, and D. L. Bunnell. 2002. Development of coarse-scale spatial data for wildland fire and fuel management. GTR RMRS-87. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Stephens, S. L. 1998Evaluation of the effects of silvicultural and fuels treatments on potential fire behaviour in Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forests.Forest Ecology and Management1052135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Stocks, B. J., Fosberg, M. A., Lynham, T. J., Mearns, L., Wotton, B. M., Yang, Q., Jin, J.-Z., Lawrence, K., Hartley, G. R., Mason, J. A., McKenney, D. W. 1998Climate change and forest fire potential in Russian and Canadian boreal forests.Climate Change38113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ter-Mikaelian, M. T., Korzukhin, M. D. 1997Biomass equations for sixty-five North American tree species.Forest Ecology and Management97124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Thompson, W. A., Vertinsky, I., Schreier, H., Blackwell, B. A. 2000Using forest fire hazard modeling in multiple use forest management planning.Forest Ecology and Management134163176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Van Cleve, K., Oliver, L., Schlentner, R., Viereck, L. A., Dyrness, C. T. 1983Productivity and nutrent cycling in taiga forest ecosystems.Canadian Journal of Forest Research13747766Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Vazquez, A., Moreno, J. M. 2001Spatial distributin of forest fires in Sierra de Gredos.Forest Ecology and Management147565Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Venier, L. A., Hopkin, A. A., Mckenney, D. W., Wang, Y. 1998A spatial, climate-determined risk rating for Scleroderris disease of pines in Ontario.Canadian Journal of Forest Research28(9)13981404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Vogt, K. A., Grier, C. C., Vogt, D. J. 1986Production turnover, and nutrient dynamics of above- and belowground detritus of world forests.Advances in Ecological Research15303377Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Wagner, R. G., Ter-Mikaelian, M. T. 1999Comparison of biomass component equations for four species of northern coniferous tree seedlings.Annals of Forest Science56193199Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Wang, C., Gower, S. T., Wang, Y., Zhao, H., Yan, P., Bond-Lamberty, B. P. 2001The influence of fire on carbon distribution and net primary production of boreal Larix gmelinii forests in north-eastern China.Global Change Biology7719730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Wang, X., Curtis, P. S. 2001Gender-specific responses of Populus tremuloides to atmospheric CO2 enrichment.New Phytologist150675684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Waring, R. H., Running, S. W. 1998Forest ecosystemsAcademic PressSan Diego340 ppGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Wei, K., Kimmins, J. P., Zhou, G. 2003Disturbances and the sustainability of long-term site productivity in lodgepole pine forests in the central interior of British Columbia—an ecosystem modeling approachEcological Modelling164239256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Whelan, R. J. 1998The ecology of fireCambridge University PressCambridge346 ppGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Whittle, C. A., Duchesne, L. C., Needham, T. 1997The impact of broadcast burning and fire severity on species composition and abundance of surface vegetation in a jack pine clear-cut.Forest Ecology and Management94141148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Wilf, P., Labandeira, C. C., Johnson, K. R., Coley, P. D., Cutter, A. D. 2001Insect herbivory, pland defense, and early Cenozoic climate change.PNAS9862116226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Yin, X. 1993Variation in foliar nitrogen concentration by forest type and climatic gradients in North America.Canadian Journal of Forest Research2315871602Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Yin, X. 1999The decay of forest woody debris: numerical modeling and implications based on some 300 data cases from North America.Oecologia1218198CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Soung-Ryoul Ryu
    • 1
  • Jiquan Chen
    • 1
  • Thomas R. Crow
    • 2
  • Sari C. Saunders
    • 3
  1. 1.Earth, Ecological and Environmental ScienceUniversity of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606USA
  2. 2.North Central Research StationUSDA Forest Service, Grand Rapids, Minnesota 55744USA
  3. 3.School of Forest Resources and Environmental ScienceMichigan Tech University, Houghton, Michigan 49931USA

Personalised recommendations