Bleeding in Plastic–Aesthetic Surgery: A Prognostic Pathway with Clinical Application

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One of the potential complications of aesthetic surgery is bleeding. Given the high surgical activity carried out in our center and the variety of interventions performed, the risk of bleeding is not negligible: A clinical practice that could reduce this postsurgical complication is necessary. The goal of this article is to value effectiveness of a bleeding score obtained through the evaluation of anamnestic data. The study was divided into two steps. The preliminary data consist in the creation of a form for the evaluation of the bleeding score based on literary data. Subsequently, the first step was put on a retrospective study on 163 patients who underwent aesthetic surgery from January 2013 to July 2017. In the second step, the bleeding score was introduced in clinical practice, submitting the form to 223 patients operated on from September 2017 to September 2018. Retrospective results showed that patients with a low bleeding index had no hemorrhagic complications. One patient of three with a medium–high bleeding score showed a hemorrhagic complication in the postoperative course. The prospective study showed that in three patients with an index between 4 and 7, the level II panel analysis confirmed a medium risk of incurring bleeding episodes during or after the surgery. One patient in 223 obtained a bleeding index of 9: This patient was not operated on and he was sent to the reference center for further investigation. This routine will help to recognize, manage, and prevent hemorrhagic complications of aesthetic surgery.

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We would like to thank Health & Progress s.r.l., Benevento, Italy, for supporting authors in the project and publication of this article.


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Correspondence to Gabriele Madonna.

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Marlino, S., Cagli, B., Vitale, A. et al. Bleeding in Plastic–Aesthetic Surgery: A Prognostic Pathway with Clinical Application. Aesth Plast Surg 44, 201–206 (2020) doi:10.1007/s00266-019-01557-5

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  • Plastic surgery
  • Adverse events
  • Bleeding score