Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

, Volume 43, Issue 6, pp 1497–1499 | Cite as

Invited Discussion on: Identifying Preoperative Factors Associated with the Volume Discrepancy in Patients Undergoing Breast Reconstruction with the Extended Latissimus Dorsi Musculocutaneous Flap Coverage

  • Rieka TaghizadehEmail author
Editor’s Invited Commentary

Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors


Breast reconstruction has undergone significant strides in recent years. Immediate autologous techniques in combination with skin- or nipple-sparing mastectomy have resulted in natural and long-standing outcomes (Fig.  1a, b). Surgeon-driven efforts have been concentrated on optimising the efficiency and technical success of breast reconstruction. However, there is increasing awareness of the importance of aesthetic parameters which would enable the patients to move forward in their breast cancer journey with increased self-confidence. Shape, volume and symmetry are the components associated with satisfaction in both aesthetic and reconstructive breast procedures. In addition, ptosis and projection contribute to a...


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Standards

Not applicable to this discussion.

Informed Consent

Informed consent has been obtained for use of photographs although no patient idenfiable features are shown.


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    Kim H, Mun GH, Wiraatmadja ES et al (2015) Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging-based breast volumetry for immediate breast reconstruction. Aesthet Plast Surg 39(3):369–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Beugels J, Kool M, Hoekstra LT et al (2018) Quality of life of patients after immediate or delayed autologous breast reconstruction: a multicentre study. Ann Plast Surg 81(5):523–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature and International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plastic SurgerySt Helen and Knowsley Teaching HospitalsLiverpoolUK

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