The Epidemiology and Clinical Features of Blepharoptosis in Taiwanese Population
- 48 Downloads
Blepharoptosis describes a condition of low-lying upper eyelid that may affect individuals of all ages under various etiologies. It may be of congenital or acquired form by the timing of onset or be divided into myogenic, neurogenic, aponeurotic, or mechanical types according to the mechanism. Our goal was to report the characteristics of age-specific blepharoptosis and to analyze the association between levator function (LF) and ptosis severity of each ptosis subtype.
Materials and Methods
The retrospective, single-center, cross-sectional study consisted of patients diagnosed with blepharoptosis in the plastic surgery practice at a medical center between September 2009 and May 2017. We reported patients’ age at presentation, sex, laterality of ptosis, etiology, classification, and evaluation of ptosis including levator function and ptosis severity.
During a nine-year span of study, a total of 1975 eyelids of 1164 Taiwanese patients aged between 2 and 88 years were enrolled in the research (mean = 57.73 ± 13.41 years). The female-to-male ratio was 2.72 (95% confidence interval [CI]: p < 0.0001). Acquired blepharoptosis and bilateral blepharoptosis were more frequently observed (55.85%, p < 0.0001 and 69.67%, p < 0.0001, respectively). In age-specific relative incidence of blepharoptosis, myogenic ptosis was the majority in patients younger than 40 years. Early onset of aponeurotic ptosis was observed in young contact lenses wearers. Aponeurotic blepharoptosis was the predominant type of ptosis in the senior population older than 40 years (p < 0.0001). Among the subtypes, mechanical ptosis had the most preserved LF (p < 0.0001). LF and MRD1 had statistically positive correlations in all subtypes of blepharoptosis, in which neurogenic ptosis demonstrated the severest levator dysfunction for each millimeter in MRD1 reduction.
Of the 1164 Taiwanese patients, blepharoptosis had a higher propensity for female gender and the age between the second to fourth decades. Bilateral involvement of blepharoptosis with acquired type was frequently diagnosed. Myogenic ptosis had a preponderance in age younger than 40 years, while aponeurotic ptosis usually affects senile population. Many mild degree myogenic ptosis was simultaneously recognized in young-aged adults seeking aesthetic double eyelid surgery. Early onset of acquired aponeurotic ptosis was also observed in contact lens wearers given the trend of decorative contact lens use. Levator dysfunction was implicated in the pathology of not only myogenic ptosis but aponeurotic, mechanical, and neurogenic ptosis. Moreover, levator function of neurogenic ptosis was most severely impacted in each MRD1 reduction among all subtypes of blepharoptosis.
Level of Evidence IV
This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.
KeywordsBlepharoptosis Myogenic ptosis Double eyelid surgery Contact lenses Aponeurotic ptosis Involutional ptosis Taiwan
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
Human and Animal Rights
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
For retrospective study, formal consent is not required.
- 5.Lai CS, Lai YW (2015) Correction of blepharoptosis. In: Pu LLQ (ed) Aesthetic plastic surgery in Asians: principles and techniques. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 405–408Google Scholar
- 8.Schaefer AJ, Schaefer DP (1994) Classification and correction of ptosis. In: Stewart WB (ed) Surgery of the eyelid, orbit, and lacrimal system. American Academy of Ophthalmology, San Francisco, pp 84–133Google Scholar
- 10.Kersten RC, de Conciliis C, Kulwin DR (1995) Acquired ptosis in the young and middle-aged adult population. Am Acad Ophthalmol 102(6):924–928Google Scholar
- 12.Baggio E, Ruban JM, Boizard Y (2002) Etiologic causes of ptosis about a series of 484 cases. To a new Classification. J Fr Ophthalmol 25(10):1015–1020Google Scholar
- 14.De Sanctis U, Alovisi C, Actis AG, Vinai L, Penna R, Fea A et al (2013) Blepharoptosis. Minerva Chir 68(6 Suppl 1):37–47Google Scholar
- 26.Beljan J, Beljan K, Beljan Z (2013) Complications caused by contact lens wearing. Coll Antropol 37(1):179–187Google Scholar
- 34.Parsons J (1904) The pathology of the Eye, vol 1. Hodder and Stoughton, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 37.Iliff JW, Pacheco EM (2001) Ptosis surgery. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA (eds) Duane’s clinical ophthalmology. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 1–8Google Scholar