Role of Spreader Flaps in Rhinoplasty: Analysis of Patients Undergoing Correction for Severe Septal Deviation with Long-Term Follow-Up
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The aim of this randomized controlled study was to analyze the long-term results of patients undergoing rhinoplasty because of severe septal deviation and to evaluate the stability of results.
Materials and Methods
The study was performed with a randomized design. Patients were randomly divided into four groups: group 1, spreader flaps were used in combination with spreader grafts; group 2, spreader flaps were used alone; group 3, spreader grafts were used alone; and group 4, neither spreader flaps nor grafts flaps were used. Patients answered the Italian version of the FACE-Q rhinoplasty module. Anthropometric measurements were performed by AutoCAD for MAC. We determined the angle of deviation, and we compared the pre- and postoperative angles and compared patient satisfaction in the four groups using the Chi-squared test for unpaired data. Two plastic surgeons reviewed all the postoperative photographs of the study patients and rated the photographs on a scale of 1 to 5.
A total of 264 patients who underwent primary rhinoplasty between January 2010 and September 2016 satisfied the inclusion criteria and were finally enrolled in this study. Anthropometric measurements revealed statistically significant differences (P < 0.01) between the preoperative and postoperative values for the angle of septal deviation in group 1 versus the other groups. Over the long-term follow-up, group 1 maintained an angle close to 180 degrees (P < 0.01). Group 1 and group 3 were more satisfied compared with groups 2 and 4 (P < 0.01). According to evaluations by the 2 reviewers, group 1 and group 3 were the most satisfactory outcomes (P < 0.01).
This was the first randomized study to show that the combined use of the spreader flap and spreader graft is the best choice for a good long-term outcome and durable correction of septal deviation.
Level of Evidence IV
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KeywordsFACE-Q NOSE-Q Rhinoplasty Nose Spreader flap Graft
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest to disclose.
This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of our University.
Each study patient provided written informed consent before participating in the study.
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