Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

, Volume 43, Issue 3, pp 815–825 | Cite as

Effects of Cigarette Smoke on Fat Graft Survival in an Experimental Rat Model

  • Alp ErcanEmail author
  • Semih Baghaki
  • Samıl Suleymanov
  • Ovgu Aydın
  • Dildar Konukoglu
  • Oguz Cetinkale
Original Article Basic Science/Experimental



A fat graft is the closest thing to being the ideal soft tissue filler. Although it has many advantages, reliability of late-term survival is a never-ending debate. Although there are observational studies that research the effect of cigarette smoke on fat graft take in clinical setting, there has not been an objective experimental animal study on the affect of smoking on fat graft survival. The aim of our study is to search if smoking has an affect on fat grafts.

Materials and Methods

Twenty-two Sprague-Dawley type rats were used. Exposure was maintained via a passive smoke exposure system. Rats were divided into three groups regarding their exposure period. At the end of the study, transferred fat grafts were extracted and weighed with a precision scale, an arterial blood sample was taken for biochemical analysis, and grafts were sent to the pathology laboratory for immunohistochemical assessment.


There were meaningful differences between the control group and the other two groups in graft weight loss, serum cotinine, tissue MDA, adipose tissue/fibrosis ratio, stem cell counts, perilipin positive cell density and inflammation density. Furthermore, we detected meaningful correlations between serum cotinine, tissue MDA and graft weight loss.


Fat graft takes with the same mechanisms as a wound heals. So like wound healing, cigarette smoke has a negative affect on fat graft survival. A fat graft is by its nature an elective procedure so to improve our late-term success, cigarette smoke exposure should be kept to a minimum for increased reliability.

No Level Assigned

This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors


Fat grafting Smoking Tobacco Cigarette Fat graft survival Fat graft reliability 



Funding from Istanbul University Scientific Research Projects Section has been granted for this project. (Project ID 23124)

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Ethical Standards

Approval of the Istanbul University Experimental Animal Research Ethics Committee had been taken for conducting this experimental study.

Informed Consent

For this type of study, informed consent is not required.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature and International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetics Surgery, Cerrahpasa Faculty of MedicineIstanbul University-CerrahpasaIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Pathology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of MedicineIstanbul University-CerrahpasaIstanbulTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Biochemistry, Cerrahpasa Faculty of MedicineIstanbul University-CerrahpasaIstanbulTurkey

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