Synkinesis Between Orbicularis Oculi and Procerus Muscles: Video Presentation of an Unusual Type of Aberrant Innervation after Cosmetic Rhinoplasty
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Synkinesis is a recognized complication following peripheral facial nerve paralysis. Different types of synkinesis have been described, with oral–ocular and ocular–oral synkinesis being the most common. Ocular–nasal synkinesis has been reported in two patients following cosmetic rhinoplasty. However, synkinesis between the orbicularis oculi and procerus muscles has not been reported by now.
This is an interventional case report.
Two women, aged 42 and 37 years, presented with unilateral contraction of the medial eyebrow muscles (procerus) with spontaneous or voluntary blinking, 4 and 5 months after cosmetic rhinoplasty, respectively. Both were successfully treated with injection of botulinum toxin A.
Surgical trauma is inevitable during every procedure, including rhinoplasty, and may damage the fine structures including branches of the facial nerve innervating the muscles. Gentle tissue handling may minimize iatrogenic injury to the fine motor branches of the facial nerve and prevent subsequent aberrant innervation and synkinesis. Botulinum toxin A injection can effectively, yet temporarily, resolve the unintentional contractions and provide significant patient comfort.
Level of Evidence V
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KeywordsEsthetics Botulinum toxin type A Facial nerve Rhinoplasty Synkinesis
The authors appreciate the expert advice by Professor Keyvan Aghazadeh on this paper.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Supplementary material 1 (MP4 2265 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (MP4 2744 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (MP4 5227 kb)
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