Smooth Muscle Alpha Actin Immunoexpression (α-Sma) and CD-117 Antibody (C-Kit) in Capsules Formed by Polyurethane Foam-Coated Silicone Implants and with Textured Surface: A Study on Rats
- 274 Downloads
One of the undesirable complications that might occur after breast augmentation with silicone implants is capsular contracture. In its etiology, the relations between mast cells and myofibroblasts play an important role in collagen synthesis. Mast cells are able to activate fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, through paracrine secretions, inducing collagen production. The objectives of this study were to analyze the myofibroblast concentration through the α-SMA immunomarker and evaluate the intensity of mast cell expression against the C-Kit immunomarker.
Material and Method
Sixty-four Wistar rats were used, divided into two groups (polyurethane foam and textured surface) with 32 animals in each. The animals received silicone implants on the back, below the panniculus carnosus, and after the determined period, they were killed and the capsules formed around the implants were studied. The capsules were analyzed employing the immunohistochemical technique, with the α-SMA and C-Kit immunomarkers in subgroups of 30, 50, 70 and 90 days.
The myofibroblast concentration was higher in the polyurethane group when compared to the textured group (30 days p = 0.105; 50 days p = 0.247; 70 days p = 0.014 and 90 days p = 0.536). The intensity of mast cell expression was more pronounced in the polyurethane group when compared to the textured group (30 days p = 0.798; 50 days p = 0.537; 70 days p = 0.094 and 90 days p = 0.536).
Polyurethane-coated implants induced higher concentrations of myofibroblasts and higher expression of mast cells, when compared to the textured surface implants.
No Level Assigned
This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.
KeywordsImplant capsular contracture Breast implants Mammaplasty Immunohistochemistry
Eduardo Nascimento Silva contributed to conception, design, intellectual and scientific content of the study, technical procedures, and statistical analysis. Jurandir Marcondes Ribas-Filho involved in scientific and intellectual content of the study, interpretation of data, critical revision and final approval. Fernando Issamu Tabushi and Alfredo Benjamim Duarte da Silva helped in scientific and intellectual content of the study, interpretation of data and critical revision. Majenna Andrade Pachnicki Silva contributed to acquisition of data, technical procedures and manuscript preparation. Elisa Beatriz Dalledone Siqueira involved in conception, design, intellectual and scientific content of the study. Lucia de Noronha performed interpretation of data and histopathological examinations. Leandro Cavalcante Lipinski helped in scientific content of the study and technical procedures. Isabelle Guth and Larissa Maria Vosgerau contributed to acquisition of data and technical procedures.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Ethics Committee Approval
State University of Ponta Grossa (UEPG).
Supplementary material 1 (MP4 73874 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (MP4 61689 kb)
- 10.Arad E, Navon-Venezia S, Gur E, Kuzmenko B, Glick R, Frenkiel-Krispin D, Kramer E, Carmeli Y, Barnea Y (2013) Novel rat model of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-infected silicone breast implants: a study of biofilm pathogenesis. Plast Reconstr Surg 131(2):205–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 12.Bergmann PA, Tamouridis G, Lohmeyer JA, Mauss KL, Becker B, Knobloch J, Mailänder P, Siemers F (2014) The effect of a bacterial contamination on the formation of capsular contracture with polyurethane breast implants in comparison with textured silicone implants—an animal study. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 67(10):1364–1370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.Kyle DJT, Bayat A (2015) Enhanced contraction of a normal breast-derived fibroblast-populated three-dimensional collagen lattice via contracted capsule fibroblast-derived paracrine factors: functional significance in capsular contracture formation. Plast Reconstr Surg 135(5):1413–1429PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 15.Silva EN, Ribas-Filho JM, Czeczko NG, Pachnicki JPA, Montemor Netto MR, Lipinski LC, Noronha L, Colman J, Zeni JO, Carvalho CA (2016) Histological evaluation of capsules formed by silicon implants coated with polyurethane foam and with a textured surface in rats. Acta Cir Bras 31(12):774–782PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 22.Vieira JV, D’Acampora AJ, Marcos ABW, di Giunta G, Vasconcellos ZAA, Ely JB, Neves RE, Figueiredo CP (2010) Vascular endothelial growth factor overexpression positively modulates the characteristics of periprosthetic tissue of polyurethane-coated silicone breast implant in rats. Plast Reconstr Surg 126(6):1899–1910PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 26.Loch-Wilkinson A, Knight KJBRJW, Wessels WLF, Magnusson M, Papadopoulos T, Connell T, Lofts J, Locke M, Hopper I, Cooter R, Vickery K, Prince HM, Deva AK (2017) Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma in Australia and New Zealand: high-surface-area textured implants are associated with increased risk. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 140(4):645–654PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 38.Ceua-Fiocruz (2008) Manual de Utilização de Animais/FIOCRUZ. 1ª Ed. Ministério da Saúde, Rio de Janeiro: FIOCRUZGoogle Scholar
- 46.Wagenführ Júnior J (2007) Comparative histopathological analysis of coverings from silicone and polyurethane foams implanted in mice. ReSoc Bras Cir Plast 22(1):19–23Google Scholar
- 53.Rocha-De-souza CM, Berent-Maoz B, Mankuta D, Moses AE, Levi-Schaffer F (2008) Human mast cell activation by Staphylococcus aureus: interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha release and the role of toll-like receptor 2 and CD48 molecules. Infect Immun 76(10):4489–4497PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar