Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

, Volume 43, Issue 1, pp 233–242 | Cite as

Smooth Muscle Alpha Actin Immunoexpression (α-Sma) and CD-117 Antibody (C-Kit) in Capsules Formed by Polyurethane Foam-Coated Silicone Implants and with Textured Surface: A Study on Rats

  • Eduardo Nascimento SilvaEmail author
  • Jurandir Marcondes Ribas-Filho
  • Fernando Issamu Tabushi
  • Majenna Andrade Pachnicki Silva
  • Elisa Beatriz Dalledone Siqueira
  • Lucia de Noronha
  • Alfredo Benjamim Duarte da Silva
  • Leandro Cavalcante Lipinski
  • Isabelle Guth
  • Larissa Maria Vosgerau
Original Article Basic Science/Experimental



One of the undesirable complications that might occur after breast augmentation with silicone implants is capsular contracture. In its etiology, the relations between mast cells and myofibroblasts play an important role in collagen synthesis. Mast cells are able to activate fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, through paracrine secretions, inducing collagen production. The objectives of this study were to analyze the myofibroblast concentration through the α-SMA immunomarker and evaluate the intensity of mast cell expression against the C-Kit immunomarker.

Material and Method

Sixty-four Wistar rats were used, divided into two groups (polyurethane foam and textured surface) with 32 animals in each. The animals received silicone implants on the back, below the panniculus carnosus, and after the determined period, they were killed and the capsules formed around the implants were studied. The capsules were analyzed employing the immunohistochemical technique, with the α-SMA and C-Kit immunomarkers in subgroups of 30, 50, 70 and 90 days.


The myofibroblast concentration was higher in the polyurethane group when compared to the textured group (30 days p = 0.105; 50 days p = 0.247; 70 days p = 0.014 and 90 days p = 0.536). The intensity of mast cell expression was more pronounced in the polyurethane group when compared to the textured group (30 days p = 0.798; 50 days p = 0.537; 70 days p = 0.094 and 90 days p = 0.536).


Polyurethane-coated implants induced higher concentrations of myofibroblasts and higher expression of mast cells, when compared to the textured surface implants.

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Implant capsular contracture Breast implants Mammaplasty Immunohistochemistry 


Authors’ Contributions

Eduardo Nascimento Silva contributed to conception, design, intellectual and scientific content of the study, technical procedures, and statistical analysis. Jurandir Marcondes Ribas-Filho involved in scientific and intellectual content of the study, interpretation of data, critical revision and final approval. Fernando Issamu Tabushi and Alfredo Benjamim Duarte da Silva helped in scientific and intellectual content of the study, interpretation of data and critical revision. Majenna Andrade Pachnicki Silva contributed to acquisition of data, technical procedures and manuscript preparation. Elisa Beatriz Dalledone Siqueira involved in conception, design, intellectual and scientific content of the study. Lucia de Noronha performed interpretation of data and histopathological examinations. Leandro Cavalcante Lipinski helped in scientific content of the study and technical procedures. Isabelle Guth and Larissa Maria Vosgerau contributed to acquisition of data and technical procedures.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethics Committee Approval

State University of Ponta Grossa (UEPG).

Supplementary material

Supplementary material 1 (MP4 73874 kb)

Supplementary material 2 (MP4 61689 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature and International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eduardo Nascimento Silva
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Jurandir Marcondes Ribas-Filho
    • 1
  • Fernando Issamu Tabushi
    • 1
  • Majenna Andrade Pachnicki Silva
    • 3
  • Elisa Beatriz Dalledone Siqueira
    • 1
  • Lucia de Noronha
    • 4
  • Alfredo Benjamim Duarte da Silva
    • 2
    • 5
  • Leandro Cavalcante Lipinski
    • 6
  • Isabelle Guth
    • 1
  • Larissa Maria Vosgerau
    • 1
  1. 1.Evangelical Faculty of Medicine of Paraná (FEPAR)Evangelical University Hospital of Curitiba (HUEC) and Institute for Medical Research (IPEM)CuritibaBrazil
  2. 2.Plastic Surgery and AnatomyState University of Ponta Grossa (UEPG)Ponta GrossaBrazil
  3. 3.Ponta GrossaBrazil
  4. 4.Anatomical PathologyPontifical Catholic University of Paraná (PUC-PR)CuritibaBrazil
  5. 5.Operative TechniqueFederal University of Paraná (UFPR)CuritibaBrazil
  6. 6.Operative TechniqueState University of Ponta Grossa (UEPG)Ponta GrossaBrazil

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