Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

, Volume 42, Issue 6, pp 1681–1688 | Cite as

Carboxytherapy-Induced Fat loss is Associated with VEGF-Mediated Vascularization

  • Jun Ho Park
  • Syeo Young Wee
  • Jiyeon Chang
  • Sunmin Hong
  • Ju Hee Lee
  • Kae Won ChoEmail author
  • Chang Yong ChoiEmail author
Original Article Basic Science/Experimental



Carboxytherapy is the transcutaneous administration of CO2 gas for therapeutic purposes. Although this non-surgical procedure has been widely used for reducing localized adiposity, its effectiveness on fat loss in obese patients and its underlying mechanisms remain unclear.


C57BL/6 mice were fed with a high-fat diet for 8 weeks to generate obese animal models. Obese mice were randomly assigned to two groups: One group was administered air to both inguinal fat pads (air/air), and the other group was treated with air to the left inguinal fat pad and with CO2 to the right inguinal fat pad (air/CO2). Each group was treated every other day for 2 weeks. Morphological changes and expression levels of genes associated with lipogenesis and vascularization in fat were determined by histological and qRT-PCR analyses.


Mice treated with air/CO2 showed lower body weights and blood glucose levels compared to air/air-treated mice. Paired comparison analysis revealed that CO2 administration significantly decreased adipose tissue weights and adipocyte sizes compared to air treatment. Additionally, CO2 treatment markedly increased vessel numbers and expressions of Vegfa and Fgf1 genes in adipose tissues. The expressions of Fasn and Fabp4 genes were also modestly reduced in CO2-treated adipose tissue. Moreover, Ucp1 expression, the target gene of VEGF and a key regulator in energy expenditure, was significantly increased in CO2-treated adipose tissue.


Carboxytherapy is effective in the reduction of localized fat in obese patients which is mechanistically associated with alteration of the vasculature involved in VEGF.

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Carboxytherapy Adipose tissue Remodeling Adipose vasculature VEGF 



This work was supported by the Soonchunhyang University Research Fund and the grant of Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea (2017R1C1B1004843).

Authors’ Contribution

CY Choi, and KW Cho conceived the idea. JH Park, J Chang, and S Hong performed animal experiments and analysis. JH Lee performed vessel immunohistochemsitry. JH Park, SY Wee, CY Choi, and KW Cho interpreted the data and wrote the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declared that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

The welfare of animals used for research was respected. All applicable institutional and/or national guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.

Supplementary material

266_2018_1222_MOESM1_ESM.docx (13 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 13 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature and International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jun Ho Park
    • 1
  • Syeo Young Wee
    • 1
  • Jiyeon Chang
    • 2
  • Sunmin Hong
    • 2
  • Ju Hee Lee
    • 3
  • Kae Won Cho
    • 2
    Email author
  • Chang Yong Choi
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Plastic and Reconstructive SurgerySoonchunhyang University HospitalGumiKorea
  2. 2.Soonchunhyang Institute of Medi-Bio Science (SIMS)Soonchunhyang UniversityCheonanKorea
  3. 3.Department of Medical BiotechnologySoonchunhyang UniversityAsanKorea
  4. 4.Department of Plastic and Reconstructive SurgerySoonchunhyang University HospitalBucheonKorea

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