Breast Implant-Associated Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma: Immediate or Delayed Implant Replacement?
Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) is a rare and recently described type of peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Fewer than 550 cases have been reported worldwide. Although BIA-ALCL is usually indolent, early diagnosis and treatment have been shown to improve outcome.
This case report describes the management of a 50-year-old healthy Caucasian woman presenting with rapid painful enlargement of the left breast. Imaging revealed findings consistent with BIA-ALCL. This diagnosis was confirmed by fine needle aspiration cytology and subsequent pathological analysis. Bilateral removal of implants, complete left capsulectomy and immediate bilateral implant exchange were performed.
No consensus currently exists regarding optimal time of implant exchange and management of the contralateral capsule. The immediate replacement with smooth implants was thoroughly discussed with the patient and endorsed by expert opinion, given complete removal of the disease. There was no sign of recurrence at 6 months. Close clinical and radiological visits are planned for the next years.
Level of Evidence V
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KeywordsBIA-ALCL Anaplastic large cell lymphoma Breast implant lymphoma Case report Total capsulectomy Immediate implant replacement
The authors would like to thank Dr. Mark W. Clemens of the MD Anderson Cancer Center for his valued advice regarding BIA-ALCL and contribution to this report. The authors would also like to acknowledge Dr. Tony Petrella for his generous contribution in the histopathological analysis of this case.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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