Horizontal Forehead Lines: A Reflection of Eyelid Ptosis or Blepharodermachalasia
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In his facial aesthetics practice, the senior author (B.G.) observed that many patients presenting with horizontal forehead lines also demonstrated upper eyelid ptosis or enough blepharodermachalasia to require compensation. This study was conducted to investigate this observation.
Photographs of patients presenting for facial rejuvenation were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of forehead lines, ptosis, brow ptosis, and blepharodermatochalasia. Patient age, gender, and race were reported. Only patients over age 50 were included. Patients who had previous eyelid or forehead surgery, congenital abnormalities, or post-traumatic deformities were excluded. Ptosis was defined as more than 1.5-mm overlap between the upper eyelid and the iris. Patients were divided into two groups based on presence of forehead lines for comparative analysis.
One hundred sixty patients, including 100 patients with and 60 patients without horizontal forehead lines, were included. Patients with forehead lines were likely to be older (age 61.56 ± 8.93 vs. 58.58 ± 7.59; P = 0.0337), male (36 vs. 11.67%; P = 0.0008), have ptosis (90 vs. 76.67%; P = 0.0377), and have blepharodermatochalasis (20 vs. 5%; P = 0.0097). All 28 patients with unilateral forehead lines (17 left, 11 right) had ipsilateral ptosis.
Ptosis and blepharodermatochalasis may result in the development of horizontal forehead lines through compensatory frontalis activation. Whenever horizontal forehead rhytids are noted, it is imperative to search for ptosis or blepharodermachalasia in repose. Otherwise, forehead rejuvenation may fail to eliminate these compensatory forehead lines, and chemodenervation may have significant adverse effects on the visual field by forcibly blocking frontalis compensation.
Level of Evidence III
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KeywordsForehead lines Ptosis Blepharodermatochalasia Frontalis Compensation
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
None of the authors have a financial interest in any of the products, devices, or drugs mentioned in this manuscript.
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