Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

, Volume 39, Issue 1, pp 141–146 | Cite as

The Comparison of Infusion of Two Different Sedation Regimens with Propofol and Ketamine Combination During Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

  • Mehdi Sanatkar
  • Shahriyar Haddadi Abianeh
  • Shahrokh Ghazizadeh
  • Javad Rahmati
  • Kourosh Ghanbarzadeh
  • Hamid Reza Fathi
  • Atabak Najafi
  • Hossein Sadrossadat
  • Ali Shahriyari
Original Article Experimental/Special Topics



Anesthetic agents are often combined to enhance their therapeutic effects while minimizing adverse events. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two different sedation regimens of ketamine and propofol combination via infusion on perioperative variables in patients who underwent plastic and reconstructive surgery.


This randomized double-blind clinical trial was done on 80 patients who were randomized to two groups; group 1 (n = 40) received a 2:1 mixture of 9 mg/ml propofol and 4.5 mg/ml ketamine, and group 2 (n = 40) received a 4:1 mixture of 9 mg/ml propofol and 2.25 mg/ml ketamine. After premedication and before local anesthetic injection, the infusion of mixtures was adjusted to attain the Ramsay sedation scores of 5 in both groups. We recorded induction time, sedation efficacy, cardiovascular and respiratory events, recovery time, and incidence of adverse events during and after the procedure.


The mean of volume infusion of mixtures in the beginning of the procedure was higher in group 2 (3.2 ± 1. 2 ml) than in group 1 (2.4 ± 0.8 ml) (p < 0.001). The induction time for sedation was 2.8 ± 0.8 min and 2.6 ± 0.4 min in group 1 and group 2, respectively (p = 0. 92). The number of oversedated patients was greater in group 2 compared to group 1 but not statistically significant (p = 0. 80). The sedation efficacy was similar between the two groups. The hemodynamic changes during the procedure were greater in group 2 compared to group 1 (p = 0. 001). The recovery time was not significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.43). The mean pain score in the recovery room was lower in group 1 than group 2 (1.2 ± 0.8 vs 2.8 ± 1.8, p = 0. 01). Moreover, 4 (10 %) patients in group 1 and 10 (25 %) patients in group 2 needed opioid administration (p = 0. 02). Other postoperative adverse events were similar between the two groups.


We recommend the use of a 2:1 combination of propofol–ketamine, because it reduced the rescue propofol requirement and consequently produced lower cardiovascular and respiratory depression effects and also less postoperative pain.

Level of Evidence I

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Propofol Ketamine Sedation Hemodynamic 



The authors thank Zahra Mokhtari, Nahid Jafarkhan, Fatemeh Daroughezadeh, Hooriyeh Naeimi, and Faezeh Keshavarz for their assistance in data collection and Zohreh Shahabi for her assistance in statistical analysis.

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest to disclose


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York and International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mehdi Sanatkar
    • 1
  • Shahriyar Haddadi Abianeh
    • 2
  • Shahrokh Ghazizadeh
    • 2
  • Javad Rahmati
    • 2
  • Kourosh Ghanbarzadeh
    • 2
  • Hamid Reza Fathi
    • 2
  • Atabak Najafi
    • 3
  • Hossein Sadrossadat
    • 4
  • Ali Shahriyari
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care MedicineRazi Hospital, Tehran University of Medical ScienceTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Plastic SurgeryRazi Hospital, Tehran University of Medical ScienceTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care MedicineSina Hospital, Tehran University of Medical ScienceTehranIran
  4. 4.Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care MedicineFarabi Hospital, Tehran University of Medical ScienceTehranIran

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