Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

, Volume 37, Issue 4, pp 719–727 | Cite as

Endoscopic Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Flap for Breast Reconstruction After Skin-Sparing Total Mastectomy: Report of 14 Cases

  • Martin IglesiasEmail author
  • Diego R. Gonzalez-Chapa
Original Article Breast



Some authors have mentioned that the endoscopic harvesting of the latissimus dorsi muscle flap for breast reconstruction is an uncommon technique that has been abandoned due to its technical complexity. Therefore, its use for immediate breast reconstruction after skin-sparing total mastectomies is reported for only a few patients, without clinical images of the reconstructed breast or of the donor site. This report describes 14 breast reconstructions using the aforementioned approach, with the latissimus dorsi muscle flap harvested by endoscopy plus the insertion of a breast implant in a single surgical procedure. The objective is to show images of the long-range clinical aesthetic results, both in the reconstructed breast and at the donor site as well as the complications so the reader can evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the technique.

Clinical Cases

From 2008 to 2011, 12 women who experienced skin-sparing total mastectomy and 2 women who underwent modified radical mastectomy were reconstructed using the aforementioned technique. The average age was 42 years (range 30–58 years), and the average body mass index was 29 kg/m2 (range 22–34 kg/m2). Three patients were heavy smokers: one had undergone a previous abdominoplasty; one had hepatitis C; and one had undergone massive weight loss. Immediate reconstructions were performed for 11 patients, and 3 reconstructions were delayed. The implant volume ranged from 355 to 640 ml. The average endoscopic harvesting time was 163.5 min (range 120–240 min), and the average bleeding was 300 ml. Four patients experienced seromas at the donor site. Acceptance of the reconstructed breast was good in six cases, moderate in seven cases, and poor in one case. Acceptance of the donor site was good in 13 cases and moderate for 1 case.


Endoscopic harvesting of the latissimus dorsi muscle has technical difficulties that have limited its acceptance. However, this technique offers the same quality of breast reconstruction as the open harvesting technique, with the advantage of a smaller scar at the donor site. Based on the results, the authors consider the reported technique to be useful and valid.

Level of Evidence IV

This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors


Breast reconstruction Endoscopic flaps Latissimus dorsi muscle 



The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York and International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador ZubiránMexico CityMexico
  2. 2.Mexico CityMexico

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