Advertisement

Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

, Volume 36, Issue 5, pp 1090–1095 | Cite as

The Effects of Aesthetic Breast Augmentation on Quality of Life, Psychological Distress, and Eating Disorder Symptoms: A Prospective Study

  • Kai M. M. SaariniemiEmail author
  • Marjo H. Helle
  • Asko M. Salmi
  • Hilkka H. Peltoniemi
  • Pia Charpentier
  • Hannu O. M. Kuokkanen
Original Article Breast

Abstract

Background

There are only a few studies that provide sufficient data regarding the effects of aesthetic breast augmentation on various aspects of quality of life. Significant improvement in body image, satisfaction with appearance, sexual attractiveness, and self-esteem has been observed in these studies. In contrast, however, a somewhat impaired general health-related quality of life has been reported at follow-up. Nevertheless, when considering the effects of aesthetic breast augmentation on eating habits, publications are lacking. We therefore decided to assess the effects of aesthetic breast augmentation on quality of life, psychological distress, and eating disorder symptoms.

Methods

This study included 79 consecutive women who underwent bilateral aesthetic augmentation mammaplasty. The women completed three outcome measures at baseline and at follow-up: the Eating Disorder Inventory, Raitasalo’s modification of the Beck Depression Inventory, and the 15D general quality-of-life questionnaire.

Results

The mean age at baseline was 35 years (range = 18–52). The mean body mass index was 21.3 (range = 17.5–27.3). Sixty-five (82 %) women completed the outcome measures with a mean follow-up time of 7 months (range = 4–13). A significant improvement was observed in self-esteem and depression scores as well as body satisfaction from baseline to follow-up. Interpersonal trust also improved, and after the operation the women were more able to tolerate and understand their own feelings and sensations. A significant decrease in the overall risk for an eating disorder was also noted.

Conclusions

Aesthetic breast augmentation results in significant improvement in women’s body satisfaction and self-esteem. The level of risk for an eating disorder is also significantly reduced.

Level of Evidence III

This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

Keywords

Aesthetic breast augmentation Augmentation mammaplasty Quality of life Psychological Depression Anxiety Eating disorder 

Notes

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.

References

  1. 1.
    Aromaa A, Koskinen S (eds) (2004) Health and functional capacity in Finland. Baseline Results of the Health 2000 Health Examination Survey Helsinki: Publications of the National Public Health Institute B12/2004. Available at www.ktl.fi/health2000
  2. 2.
    Banbury J, Yetman R, Lucas A, Papay F, Graves K, Zins JE (2004) Prospective analysis of the outcome of subpectoral breast augmentation: sensory changes, muscle function, and body image. Plast Reconstr Surg 113:701–707 discussion 708–711PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bardone AM, Perez M, Abramson LY, Joiner TE Jr (2003) Self-competence and self-liking in the prediction of change in bulimic symptoms. Int J Eat Disord 34:361–369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Beck AT, Beck RW (1972) Screening depressed patients in family practice. A rapid technic. Postgrad Med 52:81–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Beck AT, Rial WY, Rickels K (1974) Short form of depression inventory: cross-validation. Psychol Rep 34:1184–1186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Botti G, Cella A (2002) Breast augmentation as an incentive in recovering from anorexia. Aesthet Plast Surg 26:44–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cano SJ, Klassen A, Pusic AL (2009) The science behind quality-of-life measurement: a primer for plastic surgeons. Plast Reconstr Surg 123:98e–106ePubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Garner DM, Olmstead MP, Polivy J (1983) Development and validation of a multidimensional eating disorder inventory for anorexia nervosa and bulimia. Int J Eat Disord 2:15–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Joiner TE Jr (2003) Does breast augmentation confer risk of or protection from suicide? Aesthet Surg J 23:370–375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kellett S, Clarke S, McGill P (2008) Outcomes from psychological assessment regarding recommendations for cosmetic surgery. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 61:512–517PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    McIntosh VV, Britt E, Bulik CM (1994) Cosmetic breast augmentation and eating disorders. N Z Med J 107:151–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    McLaughlin JK, Wise TN, Lipworth L (2004) Increased risk of suicide among patients with breast implants: do the epidemiologic data support psychiatric consultation? Psychosomatics 45:277–280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Murphy DK, Beckstrand M, Sarwer DB (2009) A prospective, multi-center study of psychosocial outcomes after augmentation with natrelle silicone-filled breast implants. Ann Plast Surg 62:118–121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Raitasalo R (2007) Mood questionnaire. Finnish modification of the short form of the Beck Depression Inventory measuring depression symptoms and self-esteem. Studies in social security and health 86. The Social Insurance Institution, Helsinki, Finland, pp 87 (in Finnish with English summary)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rubin JP, Landfair AS, Shestak K, Lane D, Valoski A, Chang Y, Tindle HA, Kuller LH (2010) Health characteristics of postmenopausal women with breast implants. Plast Reconstr Surg 125:799–810PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sarwer DB, Wadden TA, Whitaker LA (2002) An investigation of changes in body image following cosmetic surgery. Plast Reconstr Surg 109:363–369 discussion 370–361PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sintonen H (2001) The 15D instrument of health-related quality of life: properties and applications. Ann Med 33:328–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    van Elk N, Steegers MA, van der Weij LP, Evers AW, Hartman EH, Wilder-Smith OH (2009) Chronic pain in women after breast augmentation: prevalence, predictive factors and quality of life. Eur J Pain 13:660–661PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    von Soest T, Kvalem IL, Roald HE, Skolleborg KC (2009) The effects of cosmetic surgery on body image, self-esteem, and psychological problems. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 62:1238–1244CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC and International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kai M. M. Saariniemi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Marjo H. Helle
    • 1
  • Asko M. Salmi
    • 2
  • Hilkka H. Peltoniemi
    • 2
  • Pia Charpentier
    • 3
  • Hannu O. M. Kuokkanen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plastic SurgeryTampere University HospitalTampereFinland
  2. 2.Plastic Surgery Clinic KLHelsinkiFinland
  3. 3.Center for Eating DisordersHelsinkiFinland

Personalised recommendations