Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

, Volume 35, Issue 6, pp 1016–1021 | Cite as

Photogrammetric Analysis of Soft Tissue Facial Profile in Turkish Rhinoplasty Population

  • Sercan Gode
  • Fatma S. Tiris
  • Serdar Akyildiz
  • Fazil Apaydin
Original Article



The aim of this study was to compare the facial photogrammetric analysis results of the Turkish population who are pleased with their facial appearance with the facial analysis data of patients who underwent rhinoplasty in order to find the most prominent objective facial measurements that lead patients to surgical correction of the nose.


Forty rhinoplasty patients (20M, 20F) and 40 people without nasal deformity (20M, 20F) were included in this study. Rhinobase software was used for photogrammetric facial analysis.


The differences in the nasofrontal angle (NFA), nasolabial angle (NLA), chin projection (CP), middle facial height (MFH), and tip deviation angle (TDA) between the patient and the control groups and between the males and females were statistically significant (P < 0.05).


The most significant differences between the control group and the patient group were crooked nose, obtuse NFA, acute NLA, chin underprojection, and increased MFH.


Photogrammetric analysis Rhinoplasty 



Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest to disclose and that there was no financial support for this article.


  1. 1.
    Apaydin F, Akyildiz S, Hecht DA, Toriumi DM (2009) Rhinobase: a comprehensive database, facial analysis, and picture-archiving software for rhinoplasty. Arch Facial Plast Surg 11(3):209–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Yellin SA (1997) Aesthetics for the next millennium. Facial Plast Surg 13(4):231–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fernández-Riveiro P, Smyth-Chamosa E, Suárez-Quintanilla D, Suárez-Cunqueiro M (2003) Angular photogrammetric analysis of the soft tissue facial profile. Eur J Orthod 25:393–399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fernández-Riveiro P, Suárez-Quintanilla D, Smyth-Chamosa E, Suárez-Cunqueiro M (2002) Linear photogrammetric analysis of the soft tissue facial profile. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 122:59–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ozdemir ST, Sigirli D, Ercan I, Cankur NS (2009) Photographic facial soft tissue analysis of healthy Turkish young adults: anthropometric measurements. Aesthet Plast Surg 33:175–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Porter JP, Olson KL (2001) Anthropometric facial analysis of the African American woman. Arch Facial Plast Surg 3:191–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sforza C, Laino A, D’Alessio R, Grandi G, Tartaglia GM, Ferrario VF (2008) Soft-tissue facial characteristics of attractive and normal adolescent boys and girls. Angle Orthod 78:799–807PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Choe KS, Sclafani AP, Litner JA, Yu GP, Romo T (2004) The Korean American woman’s face: anthropometric measurements and quantitative analysis of facial aesthetics. Arch Facial Plast Surg 6:244–252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Guyuron B (1988) Precision rhinoplasty part 1: the role of life size photographs and soft tissue cephalometric analysis. Plast Reconstr Surg 81:489–499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Thomas JR, Tardy ME, Prekop H (1980) Uniform photographic documentation in facial plastic surgery. Otolaryngol Clin N Am 13:367–381Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yavuzer R, Smirnes S, Jackson I (2001) Guidelines for standard photography in plastic surgery. Ann Plast Surg 46:293–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Porter JP, Olson KL (2003) Analysis of the African American female nose. Plast Reconstr Surg 111:620–626PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dibernardo BE, Adams RL, Krause J, Fiorillo MA, Gheradini G (1998) Photographic standards in plastic surgery. Plast Reconstr Surg 102:559–568PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Uzun A, Akbas H, Bilgic S, Emirzeoglu M, Bostanci O, Sahin B, Bek Y (2006) The average values of the nasal anthropometric measurements in 108 Turkish males. Auris Nasus Larynx 33:31–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Malkoc S, Demir A, Uysal T, Canbuldu N (2009) Angular photogrammetric analysis of the soft tissue facial profile of Turkish adults. Eur J Orthod 31:174–179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Varlik SK (2008) Angular photogrammetric analysis of the soft tissue facial profile of Anatolian Turkish adults. J Craniofac Surg 19(6):1481–1486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fariaby J, Hossini A, Saffari E (2006) Photographic analysis of faces of 20-year-old students in Iran. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 44:393–396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Milosevic SA, Varga ML, Slaj M (2008) Analysis of soft tissue facial profile by means of angular measurements. Eur J Orthod 30:135–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Epker BN, Stella JP, Fish LC (1995) Dentofacial deformities: integrated orthodontic and surgical correction, 12th edn. Mosby Yearbook, St. Louis, p 14Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Burstone CJ (1967) Integumental contour and extension patterns. Angle Orthod 29:93–104Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    McNamara JA, Brust EW, Riolo ML (1992) Soft tissue evaluation of individuals with an ideal occlusion and well-balanced face. In: McNamara JA, Carlson DS, Ferrara A (eds) Aesthetics and the treatment of facial form. Monograph No. 28, craniofacial growth series. Center for Human Growth and Development, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, pp 115–146Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chatrath P, Cordova JD, Nouraei SA, Ahmed J, Saleh HA (2007) Objective assessment of facial asymmetry in rhinoplasty patients. Arch Facial Plast Surg 9:184–187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC and International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sercan Gode
    • 1
    • 3
  • Fatma S. Tiris
    • 2
  • Serdar Akyildiz
    • 2
  • Fazil Apaydin
    • 2
  1. 1.ENT DepartmentIshakoglu Cayeli State HospitalRizeTurkey
  2. 2.Otorhinolaryngology DepartmentEge University School of MedicineIzmirTurkey
  3. 3.Ege Universitesi Hastanesi Kulak Burun Bogaz BolumuIzmirTurkey

Personalised recommendations