Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

, Volume 32, Issue 6, pp 858–872 | Cite as

Fat Reduction Using Phosphatidylcholine/Sodium Deoxycholate Injections: Standard of Practice

  • Diane Irvine Duncan
  • Mark Palmer
Original Article


The practice of injecting phosphatidylcholine/sodium deoxycholate compounds into subcutaneous fat is growing rapidly. As with any new procedure, a standard of practice should be developed so that practitioners maintain patient safety as the primary goal. Efficacy and predictability of outcome are another priority. As injection lipolysis, also known as “lipodissolve,” becomes more accepted, many standards are being set, such as indications, contraindications, acceptable postinjection sequelae, best regions to treat, regions to avoid, and expected outcomes. This article establishes a basis of practice for the practitioner interested in adding this procedure to his or her repertoire.


Deoxycholate Injection Lipodissolve Lipolysis Phosphatidycholine Standard of practice 


  1. 1.
    Duncan DI, Chubaty R (2006) Clinical safety data and standards of practice for injection lipolysis: A retrospective study. Aesth Surg J 26:575–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Palmer M, Curran J, Bowler P (2006) Clinical experience and safety using phosphatidylcholine injections for the localized reduction of subcutaneous fat: A multicentre, retrospective UK study. J Cosmetic Derm 5:218–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rotunda A (2006) Overview of Mesotherapy and Injection Lipolysis. International Mesolipotherapy instructional course. Las VegasGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    LeCoz J (2004) Traite de Mesoterapie. Masson, Paris, pp 7–9Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Duncan DI, Hasengschwandtner F (2005) Lipodissolve for subcutaneous fat reduction and skin retraction. Aesth Surg J 25:530–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rohrich RJ (2005) Mesotherapy: What is it? Does it work? Plast Reconstr Surg 115:1425PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    The American Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (2004) Fat-Melting Fad: Too Good to Be True? (Internet) American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery: New York. Available at
  8. 8.
    The American Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (2007) Position Statement on Injection Lipolysis, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bryant R (2004) Controversial mesotherapy: Could it be the next Botox? Dermatology Times, pp 1–2Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rittes PG (2001) The use of phosphatidylcholine for correction of lower lid bulging due to prominent fat pads. Dermatol Surg 27:391–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rittes PG (2003) The use of phosphatidylcholine for correction of localized fat deposits. Aesth Surg J 27:315–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hexsel D, Serra M, Mazzuco R et al (2003) Phosphatidylcholine in the treatment of localized fat. J Drugs Dermatol 2:511–518PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hasengschwandtner F. Lipodissolve Injections for Effective Reduction of Localized Fat as a Nonsurgical Option to Minor Lipoplasty. 2003–2004 Clinical Study. Network Lipodissolve members report, Bad LeonfeldenGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Duncan DI (2006) The Evolution of Mesotherapy. ASPS Breast and Body Contouring Symposium, Santa FeGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hasengschwandtner F (2006) Injection lipolysis for effective reduction of localized fat in the place of minor lipoplasty. Aesth Surg J 26:125–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Popp G, Hernuss P et al Lipodissolve Injections in Follow-up for Correctional Treatment After Lipoplasty. World Congress on Liposuction Surgery, 1–3 October, St. Louis, MOGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ablon G, Rotunda AM (2004) Treatment of lower eyelid fat pads using phosphatidylcholine: Clinical trial and review. Dermatol Surg 30:422–427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rullan P, Hexsel D (2005) Phosphatidylcholine Injections for Lipolysis of Neck and Jowls: 50-Case Presentation. American Society for Dermatologic Surgery–American College of Mohs Micrographic Surgery and Cutaneous Oncology combined annual meetingGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rose PT, Morgan M (2005) Histological changes associated with mesotherapy for fat dissolution. J Cosmet Laser Ther 7:17–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Duncan DI (2005) Precision and Finesse in Injection Lipolysis. Congress of Network Lipodissolve, ParisGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rittes PG (2007) Injection Lipolysis: Technique and Results. International Mesolipotherapy Society instructional course, NashvilleGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Salas P (2006) Injection Lipolysis With Phosphatidylcholine. ASAPS annual meeting, Orlando, FLGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Walsh N (2004) Some would halt lipolysis tx pending safety data. Skin Allergy News 35:26Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fat-Melting Fad (2004) Too Good to Be True? ASAPS news release, pp 1–2Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rosen D (2007) PC/DC and Its Contemplated Use. Personal communicationGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bush AM (2007) State decides to regulate substances used in weight loss. The Capital Journal. Available at
  27. 27.
    Veroffentlichungen (2006) Available at http://www.//
  28. 28.
    Rittes PG (2006) Why ANVISA Banned the Use of Lipostabil for Injection Lipolysis in Brazil. Personal communication. International Mesolipotherapy Society instructional course, Las VegasGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hexsel D et al (2005) Cosmetic use of injectable phosphatidylcholine on the face. Otolarngol Clin North Am 38:1119–1129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rotunda AM, Kolodney MS (2006) Mesotherapy and phosphatidylcholine injections: historical clarification and review. Derm Surg 32(4):465–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Meissner C (2005) Complications With Lipodissolve. First International Convention for Lipodissolve, Salzburg, AustriaGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Duncan DI (2006) Precision in Technique: Injection Lipolysis. IMCAS, ParisGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rotunda AM, Ablon G, Kolodney MS (2005) Lipomas treated with subcutaneous injections of sodium deoxycholate. J Am Acad Dermatol 53:973–978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Duncan DI (2007) Noninvasive Correction of Postsurgical Deformities. ASAPS annual meeting, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hasengschwandtner F (2005) Injection Lipolysis Basics. First International Convention for Lipodissolve, Salzburg, AustriaGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Duncan DI (2007) Dispersion Studies. Instructional course, Global Network LipolysisGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Laddy S (2007) MasterPharm conference callGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Duncan DI (2006) Technique of Injection Lipolysis. QMP annual meeting, ChicagoGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC and International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fort CollinsUSA
  2. 2.LondonUK

Personalised recommendations