Pirfenidone Prevents Capsular Contracture After Mammary Implantation
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Pirfenidone (PFD), a new antifibrotic and antiinflammatory agent, prevents and resolves fibrous tissue. This study evaluated the effect of PFD on adverse events in mammary implants using an animal model. Mammary implantation, the most frequent aesthetic surgery, may present several complications after surgery such as swelling, capsule contracture, hardness, and pain.
Wistar rats underwent submammary implantation with either smooth or textured silicone gel implants and were administrated 200 mg/kg of PFD daily. The control group received saline. The animals were killed at 8 weeks. The capsular tissue of both implants was removed for histologic and molecular analyses.
Typical postaugmentation periimplant capsules with opacity on adjacent tissues developed 8 weeks after silicone implantation. No significant differences were observed between the textured and smooth implants in any analyzed parameter. Clearly, PFD reduced capsule thickness around submmamary tissue, fibroblast-like cell proliferation, and recruitment of inflammatory cells. The total cell numbers per field were reduced as well. In contrast, the control group presented abundant mononuclear cell infiltration and fibroblast-like cell proliferation. The total content of collagen in the PFD group was 50% less than in the control group. Fibroblast cells displayed 45% less activated phenotype in the PFD group than in the control group, as determined by immunohistochemistry techniques. In the PFD animals, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) decreased 85% and collagen 1 gene expression 60%, compared with the control group.
The findings show a positive effect of PFD on mammary contracture in 10 rats. Despite the small number of animals, the differences found in 10 control rats encourage the authors to propose a larger study later and to suggest PFD as a potential preventive strategy in human mammary implantation surgery.
KeywordsCapsular contracture Mammary implantation Pirfenidone PFD
This investigation was supported by Cell Therapy and Technology, S.A. de C.V.
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