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Night-life of Bryde’s whales: ecological implications of resting in a baleen whale

  • Sahar Izadi
  • Mark Johnson
  • Natacha Aguilar de Soto
  • Rochelle Constantine
Original Article

Abstract

Many animals require intervals of rest or sleep in which their vigilance level is reduced. For marine fauna, including large baleen whales, resting potentially increases the risk of predation and vessel-strike. However, there is scarce information about how, and how often, whales rest which makes it difficult to assess the severity of this risk. Here we examine resting patterns of Bryde’s whales (Baleaenoptera edeni/brydei), using data collected by sound and movement archival tags (DTAGs) deployed on four whales in the Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand. To identify low activity levels associated with resting, we used RMS jerk and mean flow noise (as proxies for activity and speed, respectively), as well as changes in dive patterns (dive depth and shape), fluking, and respiration rates. The tagged whales showed strong diel differences in behavior with long periods of low activity consistent with resting occurring exclusively during the night. This pattern indicates that either (i) Bryde’s whales rely on senses that are less effective in the dark to locate prey, or (ii) that prey aggregate less densely at night, making foraging less efficient. Thus, Bryde’s whales conserve energy through rest during times when the net benefit of foraging effort is low. However, by reducing their interaction level with their environment, night-time resting also makes Bryde’s whales more vulnerable to vessel strikes, an important source of mortality for cetaceans.

Significant statement

All mammals need to rest periodically and whales are no exception. But while resting land mammals can be observed directly, little is known about when and how whales rest; even though lower vigilance levels during resting could make them more vulnerable to threats such as collisions with boat traffic. We used sound and movement logging tags on resident Bryde’s whales in a busy gulf to study their daily activity patterns. We found that, while whales were active during daytime making energetic lunges to capture tonnes of plankton, they dedicated much of the night to rest. This suggests that whales may rely on vision to find prey or that prey are less densely aggregated at night making foraging less efficient. However, this near-surface resting behavior which may also be shared by the other giant baleen whales increases the risk of ship strikes.

Keywords

Rest Sleep Whales Diel behavior Accelerometry Biologging 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the Marine Alliance for Science and Technology Scotland, the field assistants from the Marine Mammal Ecology Group, RV Hawere and Dolphin Explorer crews, Phil Brown, Vivian Ward, Tim Higham, Kevin Chang, and tāngata whenua of the Gulf. We also acknowledge the anonymous reviewers for careful and thorough review of our manuscript and for their useful comments.

Funding

This work was supported by the Auckland Council, the Department of Conservation, the University of Auckland including a Doctoral Scholarship to SI, and a Marie Curie Post-Doctoral Fellowship to NAS.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The research was conducted in accordance with permits from the University of Auckland Animal Ethics Committee (Permit #AEC03/2008/R636 and 910) and the New Zealand Department of Conservation (Permits #PER02/2009/01) issued to RC.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Marine ScienceUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand
  2. 2.Sea Mammal Research UnitUniversity of St AndrewsFifeUK
  3. 3.Department of BioscienceAarhus UniversityAarhusDenmark
  4. 4.BIOECOMACLa Laguna UniversityTenerifeSpain
  5. 5.School of Biological SciencesUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand

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