Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology

, Volume 69, Issue 4, pp 663–674 | Cite as

Sperm whale echolocation behaviour reveals a directed, prior-based search strategy informed by prey distribution

  • A. Fais
  • N. Aguilar Soto
  • M. Johnson
  • C. Pérez-González
  • P. J. O. Miller
  • P. T. Madsen
Original Paper

Abstract

Predators make foraging decisions based upon sensory information about resource availability, but little is known about how large, air-breathing predators collect and use such information to maximize energy returns when foraging in the deep sea. Here, we used archival tags to study how echolocating sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) use their long-range sensory capabilities to guide foraging in a deep-water habitat consisting of multiple, depth-segregated prey layers. Sperm whales employ a directed search behaviour by modulating their overall sonar sampling with the intention to exploit a particular prey layer. They forage opportunistically during some descents while actively adjusting their acoustic gaze to sequentially track different prey layers. While foraging within patches, sperm whales adjust their clicking rate both to search new water volumes as they turn and to match the prey distribution. This strategy increases information flow and suggests that sperm whales can perform auditory stream segregation of multiple targets when echolocating. Such flexibility in sampling tactics in concert with long-range sensing capabilities apparently allow sperm whales to efficiently locate and access prey resources in vast, heterogeneous, deep water habitats.

Keywords

Sperm whales Echolocation behaviour Directed search behaviour Prior information Multi-target acoustic scene 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Fais
    • 1
    • 6
  • N. Aguilar Soto
    • 1
  • M. Johnson
    • 2
  • C. Pérez-González
    • 3
  • P. J. O. Miller
    • 2
  • P. T. Madsen
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.BIOECOMAC, Department of Animal BiologyLa Laguna UniversityCanary IslandsSpain
  2. 2.Scottish Ocean InstituteUniversity of St. AndrewsSt. AndrewsScotland
  3. 3.Department of Statistics, Operating Research and ComputationLa Laguna UniversityCanary IslandsSpain
  4. 4.Zoophysiology, Department of BioscienceAarhus UniversityAarhusDenmark
  5. 5.MUCRU, Centre for Fish, Fisheries and Aquatic Ecosystems Research, School of Veterinary and Life SciencesMurdoch UniversityPerthAustralia
  6. 6.Institute for Terrestrial and Aquatic Wildlife ResearchUniversity of Veterinary Medicine HannoverHannoverGermany

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