Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology

, Volume 69, Issue 3, pp 383–394 | Cite as

Friendship, reciprocation, and interchange in an individual-based model

  • Ivan Puga-Gonzalez
  • Anne Hoscheid
  • Charlotte K. Hemelrijk
Original Paper

Abstract

Reciprocation and interchange of grooming and support may emerge as a consequence of the socio-spatial structure of the group through which individuals interact with certain partners more frequently than with others. This is shown in a computational model of grouping, fighting, and grooming, called Groofiworld. In this case, no specific mechanism of exchange is needed, such as described in calculated reciprocity or emotional bookkeeping. One of the drawbacks of this model, GroofiWorld, however, is that it lacks social bonding, a factor that may play an important role in real societies of primates. To investigate the effect of social bonding on exchange relations, in the present study, we add ‘social bonding’ to the model ‘GrooFiWorld.’ In the new model, called ‘FriendsWorld,’ social bonds or ‘friends’ are defined as the top 25 % grooming partners and individuals are given a tendency to follow their friends. Note that they do not intend to reciprocate or interchange social services with friends. Results show that this mechanism of ‘follow-your-friends,’ not only increases social interactions among top grooming partners, but also strengthens the patterns of reciprocation and interchange. Our findings suggest that, in real primates, reciprocation and interchange may emerge as a side-effect of the social–spatial structure of the group and subsequently be strengthened by social bonding as represented in FriendsWorld. We give predictions that distinguish between the mechanism of ‘follow-your-friends’ and emotional bookkeeping.

Keywords

Social bonding Friendships Individual-based models Reciprocation Interchange Self-organization Emotional bookkeeping 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank the members of the Self-organization group for their continuous comments and helpful advice. We also thank the University of Groningen and the National Council of Science and Technology (CONACYT) of Mexico for financial support to IP-G during his Ph.D.

References

  1. Amici F, Aureli F, Mundry R, Amaro A, Barroso A, Ferretti J, Call J (2014) Calculated reciprocity? A comparative test with six primate species. Primates 55:447–457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aureli F, Cords M, van Schaik CP (2002) Conflict resolution following aggression in gregarious animals: a predictive framework. Anim Behav 64:325–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berghaenel A, Ostner J, Schroeder U, Schuelke O (2011) Social bonds predict future cooperation in male Barbary macaques, Macaca sylvanus. Anim Behav 81:1109–1116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berman CM, Ionica CS, Li J (2007) Supportive and tolerant relationships among male Tibetan macaques at Huangshan, China. Behaviour 144:631–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brosnan SF, de Waal FBM (2002) A proximate perspective on reciprocal altruism. Hum Nat-Int Bios 13:129–152Google Scholar
  6. Brosnan SF, Silk JB, Henrich J, Mareno MC, Lambeth SP, Schapiro SJ (2009) Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) do not develop contingent reciprocity in an experimental task. Anim Cogn 12:587–597PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Caldecott JO (1986) Mating patterns, societies and ecogeography of macaques. Anim Behav 34:208–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Campenni M, Schino G (2014) Partner choice promotes cooperation: the two faces of testing with agent-based models. J Theor Biol 344:49–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carne C, Wiper S, Semple S (2011) Reciprocation and interchange of grooming, agonistic support, feeding tolerance, and aggression in semi-free-ranging Barbary macaques. Am J Primatol 73:1127–1133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. de Waal FBM (2000) Attitudinal reciprocity in food sharing among brown capuchin monkeys. Anim Behav 60:253–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. de Waal FBM, Brosnan SF (2006) Simple and complex reciprocity in primates. In: Kappeler PM, van Schaick CP (eds) Cooperation in primates and humans: mechanisms and evolution. Springer, Berlin, pp 85–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. de Waal FBM, Luttrell LM (1988) Mechanisms of social reciprocity in three primate species: symmetrical relationship characteristics or cognition? Ethol Sociobiol 9:101–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dufour V, Pele M, Neumann M, Thierry B, Call J (2009) Calculated reciprocity after all: computation behind token transfers in orang-utans. Biol Lett 5:172–175PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Evers E, de Vries H, Spruijt BM, Sterck EHM (2014) The EMO-model: an agent-based model of primate social behavior regulated by two emotional dimensions, anxiety–FEAR and satisfaction–LIKE. PLoS ONE 9:e87955PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Frank RE, Silk JB (2009) Impatient traders or contingent reciprocators? Evidence for the extended time-course of grooming exchanges in baboons. Behaviour 146:1123–1135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Galef BG Jr (1988) Imitation in animals: history, definitions, and interpretation of data from the psychological laboratory. In: Zentall T, Galef B (eds) Social learning: psychobiological and biological perspectives. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, pp 3–28Google Scholar
  17. Gomes CM, Boesch C (2009) Wild chimpanzees exchange meat for sex on a long-term basis. PLoS ONE 4:e5116PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Graves FC, Wallen K, Maestripieri D (2002) Opioids and attachment in rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) abusive mothers. Behav Neurosci 116:489–493PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hemelrijk CK (1990) Models of, and tests for, reciprocity, unidirectional and other social interaction patterns at a group level. Anim Behav 39:1013–1029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hemelrijk CK (1999) An individual-oriented model on the emergence of despotic and egalitarian societies. Proc R Soc Lond B 266:361–369Google Scholar
  21. Hemelrijk CK (2000) Towards the integration of social dominance and spatial structure. Anim Behav 59:1035–1048PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hemelrijk CK, de Kogel CH (1989) What chimpanzee mothers have more sociable infants? Behaviour 111:305–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hemelrijk CK, Ek A (1991) Reciprocity and interchange of grooming and ‘support’ in captive chimpanzees. Anim Behav 41:923–935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hemelrijk CK, Puga-Gonzalez I (2012) An individual-oriented model on the emergence of support in fights, its reciprocation and exchange. PLoS ONE 7:e37271PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hemelrijk CK, Wantia J, Isler K (2008) Female dominance over males in primates: self-organisation and sexual dimorphism. PLoS ONE 3:e2678PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hochberg Y (1988) A sharper Bonferroni procedure for multiple tests of significance. Biometrika 75:800–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hogeweg P (1988) MIRROR beyond MIRROR, puddles of LIFE. In: Langton C (ed) Artificial life, SFI studies in the sciences of complexity. Adisson-Wesley Publishing Company, Redwood City, pp 297–316Google Scholar
  28. Hsu Y, Wolf LL (1999) The winner and loser effect: integrating multiple experiences. Anim Behav 57:903–910PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hsu Y, Earley RL, Wolf LL (2006) Modulation of aggressive behaviour by fighting experience: mechanisms and contest outcomes. Biol Rev 81:33–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jaeggi AV, De Groot E, Stevens JMG, van Schaik CP (2013) Mechanisms of reciprocity in primates: testing for short-term contingency of grooming and food sharing in bonobos and chimpanzees. Evol Hum Behav 34:69–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Keverne EB, Martensz ND, Tuite B (1989) Beta-endorphin concentrations in cerebrospinal-fluid of monkeys are influenced by grooming relationships. Psychoneuroendocrino 14:155–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. King AJ, Sueur C, Huchard E, Cowlishaw G (2011) A rule-of-thumb based on social affiliation explains collective movements in desert baboons. Anim Behav 82:1337–1345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Manson JH, Navarrete CD, Silk JB, Perry S (2004) Time-matched grooming in female primates? New analyses from two species. Anim Behav 67:493–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mardia KV (1972) Statistics of directional data. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  35. Massen JJM, Sterck EHM, de Vos H (2010) Close social associations in animals and humans: functions and mechanisms of friendship. Behaviour 147:1379–1412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ménard M (2004) Do ecological factors explain variation in social organization? In: Thierry B, Singh M, Kaumanns W (eds) Macaque societies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 237–262Google Scholar
  37. Puga-Gonzalez I, Hildenbrandt H, Hemelrijk CK (2009) Emergent patterns of social affiliation in primates, a model. PLoS Comput Biol 5:e1000630PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Puga-Gonzalez I, Butovskaya M, Thierry B, Hemelrijk CK (2014) Empathy versus parsimony in understanding post-conflict affiliation in monkeys: model and empirical data. PLoS ONE 9:e91262PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sabbatini G, Vizioli ADB, Visalberghi E, Schino G (2012) Food transfers in capuchin monkeys: an experiment on partner choice. Biol Lett 8:757–759PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sapolsky RM (1992) Cortisol concentrations and the social significance of rank instability among wild baboons. Psychoneuroendocrino 17:701–709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Schino G, Aureli F (2009) Reciprocal altruism in primates: partner choice, cognition, and emotions. Adv Stud Behav 39:45–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Schino G, Aureli F (2010) Primate reciprocity and its cognitive requirements. EvolAnthropol 19:130–135Google Scholar
  43. Schino G, Ventura R, Troisi A (2003) Grooming among female Japanese macaques: distinguishing between reciprocation and interchange. Behav Ecol 14:887–891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Schino G, Ventura R, Troisi A (2005) Grooming and aggression in captive Japanese macaques. Primates 46:207–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Schino G, di Sorrentino EP, Tiddi B (2007) Grooming and coalitions in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata): partner choice and the time frame of reciprocation. J Comp Psychol 121:181–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Schino G, Di Giuseppe F, Visalberghi E (2009) The time frame of partner choice in the grooming reciprocation of Cebus apella. Ethology 115:70–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Shutt K, MacLarnon A, Heistermann M, Semple S (2007) Grooming in Barbary macaques: better to give than to receive? Biol Lett 3:231–233PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Silk JB (1992) Patterns of intervention in agonistic contests among male bonnet macaques. In: Harcourt AH, de Waal FBM (eds) Coalitions and alliances in humans and other animals. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  49. Silk JB (2007) Social components of fitness in primate groups. Science 317:1347–1351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Silk JB, Alberts SC, Altmann J (2003) Social bonds of female baboons enhance infant survival. Science 302:1231–1234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Silk JB, Alberts SC, Altmann J (2004) Patterns of coalition formation by adult female baboons in Amboseli, Kenya. Anim Behav 67:573–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Smuts BB (1985) Sex and friendship in baboons. Aldine, HawthorneGoogle Scholar
  53. Southwood TRE (1978) Ecological methods with particular reference to the study of insect populations. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  54. Stevens JR, Hauser MD (2004) Why be nice? Psychological constraints on the evolution of cooperation. Trends Cogn Sci 8:60–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Stevens JR, Volstorf J, Schooler LJ, Rieskamp J (2011) Forgetting constrains the emergence of cooperative decision strategies. Front Psychol 2:235Google Scholar
  56. Tiddi B, Aureli F, di Sorrentino EP, Janson CH, Schino G (2011) Grooming for tolerance? Two mechanisms of exchange in wild tufted capuchin monkeys. Behav Ecol 22:663–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Veenema HC, Das M, Aureli F (1994) Methodological improvements for the study of reconciliation. Behav Process 31:29–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Widdig A, Streich WJ, Tembrock G (2000) Coalition formation among male Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). Am J Primatol 50:37–51Google Scholar
  59. Widdig A, Streich WJ, Nuernberg P, Croucher PJP, Bercovitch FB, Krawczak M (2006) Paternal kin bias in the agonistic interventions of adult female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 61:205–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ivan Puga-Gonzalez
    • 1
  • Anne Hoscheid
    • 1
  • Charlotte K. Hemelrijk
    • 1
  1. 1.Behavioural Ecology and Self-Organization, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary StudiesUniversity of GroningenGroningenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations