Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology

, Volume 66, Issue 6, pp 835–843 | Cite as

Leading from the front? Social networks in navigating groups

  • Nikolai W. F. Bode
  • Daniel W. Franks
  • A. Jamie Wood
Original Paper


In many group-living animals, leadership by only a fraction of the group members can be important for group navigation. It has been shown that subgroups of informed individuals can steer the remainder of the group without direct communication, resolving conflicts of interest through individual-to-individual interactions. We present a model for the navigation of collectively moving groups that includes preferential interactions between individuals as a way of imposing social network structures, known to be present in many species. We show that effective leadership can occur when leaders do not occupy frontal spatial positions and when navigation tendency is appropriately balanced with social position. Our model also shows that small minorities can dominate movement decisions if they have navigational knowledge combined with influential social network positions. Our findings highlight the mechanistic importance of social networks for the movement decisions of animal groups. We discuss the implications of our research for interpreting empirical observations.


Social networks Leadership Group navigation Group cohesion Decision making Collective motion 



NWFB acknowledges funding from the Natural Environment Research Council. DWF and AJW are funded by RCUK fellowships. The authors would like to thank four referees and the editors for insightful and constructive comments which greatly improved this manuscript.

Supplementary material

265_2012_1331_MOESM1_ESM.doc (18 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 18 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nikolai W. F. Bode
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Daniel W. Franks
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • A. Jamie Wood
    • 2
    • 3
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Ecology and Evolutionary BiologyPrinceton UniversityPrincetonUSA
  2. 2.York Centre for Complex Systems AnalysisUniversity of YorkYorkUK
  3. 3.Department of BiologyUniversity of YorkYorkUK
  4. 4.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of YorkYorkUK
  5. 5.Department of MathematicsUniversity of YorkYorkUK

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