Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology

, Volume 65, Issue 1, pp 23–35 | Cite as

AIC model selection and multimodel inference in behavioral ecology: some background, observations, and comparisons

  • Kenneth P. BurnhamEmail author
  • David R. Anderson
  • Kathryn P. Huyvaert


We briefly outline the information-theoretic (I-T) approaches to valid inference including a review of some simple methods for making formal inference from all the hypotheses in the model set (multimodel inference). The I-T approaches can replace the usual t tests and ANOVA tables that are so inferentially limited, but still commonly used. The I-T methods are easy to compute and understand and provide formal measures of the strength of evidence for both the null and alternative hypotheses, given the data. We give an example to highlight the importance of deriving alternative hypotheses and representing these as probability models. Fifteen technical issues are addressed to clarify various points that have appeared incorrectly in the recent literature. We offer several remarks regarding the future of empirical science and data analysis under an I-T framework.


AIC Evidence Kullback–Leibler information Model averaging Model likelihoods Model probabilities Model selection Multimodel inference 



The authors thank The Colorado Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit and the Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology at Colorado State University for continuous support. We appreciate the help of Robert Montgomerie and that of two anonymous reviewers as these helped improve the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenneth P. Burnham
    • 1
    Email author
  • David R. Anderson
    • 1
  • Kathryn P. Huyvaert
    • 2
  1. 1.Colorado Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research UnitColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA
  2. 2.Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Conservation BiologyColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA

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