Promiscuous honeybee queens generate colonies with a critical minority of waggle-dancing foragers
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Honeybees present a paradox that is unusual among the social Hymenoptera: extremely promiscuous queens generate colonies of nonreproducing workers who cooperate to rear reproductives with whom they share limited kinship. Extreme polyandry, which lowers relatedness but creates within-colony genetic diversity, produces substantial fitness benefits for honeybee queens and their colonies because of increased disease resistance and workforce productivity. However, the way that these increases are generated by individuals in genetically diverse colonies remains a mystery. We assayed the foraging and dancing performances of workers in multiple-patriline and single-patriline colonies to discover how within-colony genetic diversity, conferred to colonies by polyandrous queens, gives rise to a more productive foraging effort. We also determined whether the initiation by foragers of waggle-dance signaling in response to an increasing sucrose stimulus (their dance response thresholds) was linked to patriline membership. Per capita, foragers in multiple-patriline colonies visited a food source more often and advertised it with more waggle-dance signals than foragers from single-patriline colonies, although there was variability among multiple-patriline colonies in the strength of this difference. High-participation patrilines emerged within multiple-patriline colonies, but their more numerous foragers and dancers were neither more active per capita nor lower-threshold dancers than their counterparts from low-participation patrilines. Our results demonstrate that extreme polyandry does not enhance recruitment effort through the introduction of low-dance-threshold, high-activity workers into a colony’s population. Rather, genetic diversity is critical for injecting into a colony’s workforce social facilitators who are more likely to become engaged in foraging-related activities, so boosting the production of dance signals and a colony’s responsiveness to profitable food sources.
KeywordsIntracolonial genetic diversity Polyandry Recruitment signaling Response thresholds Task allocation Waggle-dance communication
We are grateful to M. Girard for dedicated assistance in the field and with sample processing. We also thank S. Bogdanowicz and M. Jandricic for assistance with genotyping. We appreciate stimulating feedback from A. Weidenmüller on an early version of the manuscript and careful review of the submitted draft from three reviewers. This project was funded by a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada Postdoctoral Fellowship (H.R.M.) and two Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service National Research Initiative grants (T.D.S.: 2003-35302-13387 and 2007-35302-18174).
Conflict of interest statement
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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