Advertisement

Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology

, Volume 64, Issue 5, pp 703–715 | Cite as

Behavioral correlations across activity, mating, exploration, aggression, and antipredator contexts in the European house cricket, Acheta domesticus

  • Alexander D. M. Wilson
  • Emily M. Whattam
  • Rachel Bennett
  • Laksanavadee Visanuvimol
  • Chris Lauzon
  • Susan M. Bertram
Original Paper

Abstract

Recently, there has been increasing interest in behavioral syndrome research across a range of taxa. Behavioral syndromes are suites of correlated behaviors that are expressed either within a given behavioral context (e.g., mating) or between different contexts (e.g., foraging and mating). Syndrome research holds profound implications for animal behavior as it promotes a holistic view in which seemingly autonomous behaviors may not evolve independently, but as a “suite” or “package.” We tested whether laboratory-reared male and female European house crickets, Acheta domesticus, exhibited behavioral syndromes by quantifying individual differences in activity, exploration, mate attraction, aggressiveness, and antipredator behavior. To our knowledge, our study is the first to consider such a breadth of behavioral traits in one organism using the syndrome framework. We found positive correlations across mating, exploratory, and antipredatory contexts, but not aggression and general activity. These behavioral differences were not correlated with body size or condition, although age explained some of the variation in motivation to mate. We suggest that these across-context correlations represent a boldness syndrome as individual risk-taking and exploration was central to across-context mating and antipredation correlations in both sexes.

Keywords

Personality Boldness Temperament Behavioral syndromes Risk-taking 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Hans Hofmann and two anonymous reviewers for their extensive and helpful comments on an earlier version of this manuscript. We also thank Dhara Vyas for her assistance with a subset of the behavioral trials, Raphael Jeanson for designing and writing the Excel macro used in most behavioral trials, Luke Johnson for designing the EAR system used in mate attraction quantification, Jeff Dawson for his technical assistance, and Amanda Goth for her assistance with cricket husbandry. We gratefully acknowledge the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) for an Individual Discovery Grant awarded to S.M.B. and postgraduate doctoral scholarship to A.D.M.W. We thank Carleton University for start-up funds awarded to S.M.B. used to purchase equipment, materials, and supplies and partially support undergraduate researchers engaged in this research project. We thank NSERC for the Undergraduate Student Research Awards which partially supported E.W. and R.B. An NSERC Individual Discovery Grant awarded to Jean-Guy Godin (Carleton University) partially supported A.D.M.W.

References

  1. Alexander RD (1961) Aggressiveness, territoriality, and sexual behavior in field crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). Behaviour 17:130–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bateman PW, Fleming PA (2005) Direct and indirect costs of limb autotomy in field crickets, Gryllus bimaculatus. Anim Behav 69:151–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bateman PW, Fleming PA (2006a) Increased susceptibility to predation for autotomized house crickets (Acheta domestica). Ethology 112:670–677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bateman PW, Fleming PA (2006b) Sex, intimidation and severed limbs: the effect of simulated predator attack and limb autotomy on calling and emergence behaviour in the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 59:674–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bell AM (2005) Behavioural differences between individuals and two populations of stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). J Evol Biol 18:464–473CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bell AM (2007) Future directions in behavioural syndromes research. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 274:755–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Benjamini Y, Drai D, Elmer N, Golani I (2001) Controlling the false discovery rate in behavior genetics research. Behav Brain Res 125:279–284CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bertram SM, Orozco SX, Bellani R (2004) Temporal shifts in conspicuousness: mate attraction displays of the Texas field cricket, Gryllus texensis. Ethology 110:963–975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown WD, Smith AT, Moskalik B, Gabriel J (2006) Aggressive contests in house crickets: size, motivation and the information content of aggressive songs. Anim Behav 72:225–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown WD, Chimenti AJ, Siebert JR (2007a) The payoff of fighting in house crickets: motivational asymmetry increases male aggression and mating success. Ethology 113:457–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brown C, Jones F, Braithwaite VA (2007b) Correlation between boldness and body mass in natural populations of the poeciliid Brachyrhaphis episcopi. J Fish Biol 71:1590–1601Google Scholar
  12. Coleman K, Wilson DS (1998) Shyness and boldness in pumpkinseed sunfish: individual differences are context-specific. Anim Behav 56:927–936CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Crankshaw OS (1979) Female choice in relation to calling and courtship songs in Acheta domesticus. Anim Behav 27:1274–1275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dingemanse NJ, Réale D (2005) Natural selection and animal personality. Behaviour 142:1159–1184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dingemanse NJ, Wright J, Kazem AJN, Thomas DK, Hickling R, Dawnay N (2007) Behavioural syndromes differ predictably between 12 populations of three-spined stickleback. J Anim Ecol 76:1128–1138CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Dochtermann NA, Jenkins SH (2007) Behavioural syndromes in Merriam’s kangaroo rats (Dipodomys merriami): a test of competing hypotheses. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 274:2343–2349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Drent PJ, van Oers K, van Noordwijk AJ (2003) Realized heritability of personalities in the great tit (Parus major). Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 270:45–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dugatkin LA, Alfieri MS (2003) Boldness, behavioral inhibition and learning. Ethol Ecol Evol 15:43–49Google Scholar
  19. Fleming PA, Bateman PW (2007) Just drop it and run: the effect of limb autotomy on running distance and locomotion energetics of field crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus). J Exp Biol 210:1446–1454CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Fraser DF, Gilliam JF, Daley MJ, Le AN, Skalski GT (2001) Explaining leptokurtic movement distributions: intrapopulation variation in boldness and exploration. Am Nat 158:124–135CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Godin J-GJ, Davis SA (1995) Who dares, benefits: predator approach behavior in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) deters predator pursuit. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 259:193–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Godin J-GJ, Dugatkin LA (1996) Female mating preference for bold males in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:10262–10267CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Gray DA (1997) Female house crickets, Acheta domesticus, prefer the chirps of large males. Anim Behav 54:1553–1562CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Gray DA (1999) Intrinsic factors affecting female choice in house crickets: time cost, female age, nutritional condition, body size, and size-relative reproductive investment. J Insect Behav 12:691–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hedrick AV (2000) Crickets with extravagant mating songs compensate for predation risk with extra caution. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 267:671–675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hedrick AV, Kortet R (2006) Hiding behaviour in two cricket populations that differ in predation pressure. Anim Behav 72:1111–1118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hofmann HA, Schildberger K (2001) Assessment of strength and willingness to fight during aggressive encounters in crickets. Anim Behav 62:337–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Huntingford FA (1976) Relationship between anti-predator behavior and aggression among conspecifics in 3-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. Anim Behav 24:245–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Huntingford FA (2004) Implications of domestication and rearing conditions for the behaviour of cultivated fishes. J Fish Biol 65:122–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Johnson JC, Sih A (2005) Precopulatory sexual cannibalism in fishing spiders (Dolomedes triton): a role for behavioral syndromes. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 58:390–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Johnson JC, Sih A (2007) Fear, food, sex and parental care: a syndrome of boldness in the fishing spider, Dolomedes triton. Anim Behav 74:1131–1138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Killian KA, Allen JR (2008) Mating resets male cricket aggression. J Insect Behav 21:535–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kortet R, Hedrick A (2007) A behavioural syndrome in the field cricket Gryllus integer: intrasexual aggression is correlated with activity in a novel environment. Biol J Linn Soc 91:475–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Martin JGA, Réale D (2008) Temperament, risk assessment and habituation to novelty in eastern chipmunks, Tamias striatus. Anim Behav 75:309–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. McDougall PT, Réale D, Sol D, Reader SM (2006) Wildlife conservation and animal temperament: causes and consequences of evolutionary change for captive, reintroduced, and wild populations. Anim Conserv 9:39–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Moretz JA, Martins EP, Robison BD (2007) Behavioral syndromes and the evolution of correlated behavior in zebrafish. Behav Ecol 18:556–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nakagawa S (2004) A farewell to Bonferroni: the problems of low statistical power and publication bias. Behav Ecol 15:1044–1045CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Narum SR (2006) Beyond Bonferroni: less conservative analyses for conservation genetics. Conserv Genet 7:783–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Nelson CM, Nolen TG (1997) Courtship song, male agonistic encounters, and female mate choice in the house cricket, Acheta domesticus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). J Insect Behav 10:557–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Price T, Langen T (1992) Evolution of correlated characters. Trends Ecol Evol 7:307–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Quinn JL, Cresswell W (2005) Personality, anti-predation behaviour and behavioural plasticity in the chaffinch Fringilla coelebs. Behaviour 142:1377–1402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Réale D, Festa-Bianchet M (2003) Predator-induced natural selection on temperament in bighorn ewes. Anim Behav 65:463–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Réale D, Reader SM, Sol D, McDougall PT, Dingemanse NJ (2007) Integrating animal temperament within ecology and evolution. Biol Rev 82:291–318CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Rehage JS, Sih A (2004) Dispersal behavior, boldness, and the link to invasiveness: a comparison of four Gambusia species. Biol Invasions 6:379–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Riechert SE, Hedrick AV (1993) A test for correlations among fitness-linked behavioral traits in the spider Agelenopsis aperta (Araneae, Agelenidae). Anim Behav 46:669–675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sih A, Bell AM (2007) Insights from behavioural syndromes for the evolutionary genetics of personality. Eur J Pers 21:626–628Google Scholar
  47. Sih A, Watters JV (2005) The mix matters: behavioural types and group dynamics in water striders. Behaviour 142:1417–1431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sih A, Bell A, Johnson JC (2004a) Behavioral syndromes: an ecological and evolutionary overview. Trends Ecol Evol 19:372–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sih A, Bell AM, Johnson JC, Ziemba RE (2004b) Behavioral syndromes: an integrative overview. Q Rev Biol 79:241–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sinn DL, Gosling SD, Moltschaniwskyj NA (2008) Development of shy/bold behaviour in squid: context-specific phenotypes associated with developmental plasticity. Anim Behav 75:433–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Smith BR, Blumstein DT (2008) Fitness consequences of personality: a meta-analysis. Behav Ecol 19:448–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Stapley J, Keogh JS (2005) Behavioral syndromes influence mating systems: floater pairs of a lizard have heavier offspring. Behav Ecol 16:514–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Stout JF, McGhee R (1988) Attractiveness of the male Acheta domestica calling song to females. 2. The relative importance of syllable period, intensity, and chirp rate. J Comp Physiol A Sens Neural Behav Physiol 164:277–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Stout JF, Dehaan CH, McGhee RW (1983) Attractiveness of the male Acheta domesticus calling song to females. 1. Dependence on each of the calling song features. J Comp Physiol 153:509–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Svartberg K, Forkman B (2002) Personality traits in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). Appl Anim Behav Sci 79:133–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ward AJW, Thomas P, Hart PJB, Krause J (2004) Correlates of boldness in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 55:561–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Webster MM, Ward AJW, Hart PJB (2007) Boldness is influenced by social context in threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Behaviour 144:351–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wilson ADM, Godin J-GJ (2009) Boldness and behavioral syndromes in the bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus. Behav Ecol 20:231–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wilson ADM, McLaughlin RL (2007) Behavioural syndromes in brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis: prey-search in the field corresponds with space use in novel laboratory situations. Anim Behav 74:689–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wilson ADM, Stevens ED (2005) Consistency in context-specific measures of shyness and boldness in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Ethology 111:849–862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wilson DS, Clark AB, Coleman K, Dearstyne T (1994) Shyness and boldness in humans and other animals. Trends Ecol Evol 9:442–446Google Scholar
  62. Wright D, Nakamichi R, Krause J, Butlin RK (2006) QTL analysis of behavioral and morphological differentiation between wild and laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio). Behav Genet 36:271–284CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander D. M. Wilson
    • 1
  • Emily M. Whattam
    • 1
  • Rachel Bennett
    • 1
  • Laksanavadee Visanuvimol
    • 1
  • Chris Lauzon
    • 1
  • Susan M. Bertram
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyCarleton UniversityOttawaCanada

Personalised recommendations