Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology

, Volume 60, Issue 3, pp 430–438 | Cite as

Individual dispersal status influences space use of conspecific residents in the common lizard, Lacerta vivipara

Original Article

Abstract

The effects of immigration on the behaviour of residents may have important implications for the local population characteristics. A manipulative laboratory experiment with yearlings of the common lizard (Lacerta vivipara) was performed to test whether the introduction of dispersing or philopatric individuals influences the short-term spacing behaviour of resident individuals. Staged encounters were carried out to induce interactions within dyads. The home cage of each responding individual was connected by a corridor to an unfamiliar “arrival cage” to measure the latency to leave their own home cage after each encounter. Our results showed that the time that pairs spent in close proximity was longer when a dispersing individual was introduced in the home cage. The latency to leave the home cage was longer after the introduction of a dispersing individual. These response variables were not influenced by the relative body sizes of contestants nor by the level of aggression towards each other. In contrast, the aggressive response was significantly influenced by the residency asymmetry established experimentally (“owner” of the home cage vs introduced individual). Our results suggest that the space use by resident individuals is influenced by the dispersal status of conspecifics. The potential ultimate causes driving this effect are discussed.

Keywords

Dispersal Immigration Social interactions Space use Lizards Lacerta vivipara Reptile 

References

  1. Andreassen HP, Stenseth NC, Ims RA (2002) Dispersal behaviour and population dynamics of vertebrates. In: Bullock JM, Kenward RE, Hails RS (eds) Dispersal ecology. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 237–256Google Scholar
  2. Aragón P, López P, Martín J (2000) Size-dependent chemosensory responses to familiar and unfamiliar conspecific faecal pellets by the Iberian rock-lizard, Lacerta monticola. Ethology 106:1115–1128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aragón P, López P, Martín J (2004) The ontogeny of spatio-temporal tactics and social relationships of adult male Iberian rock lizards, Lacerta monticola. Ethology 110:1001–1019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aragón P, López P, Martín J (2006) Roles of male residence and relative size in the social behavior of Iberian rock lizards, Lacerta monticola. Behav Ecol Sociobiol. DOI:10.1007/s00265-005-0106-8Google Scholar
  5. Bauwens D, Thoen C (1981) Escape tactics and vulnerability to predation associated with reproduction in the lizard Lacerta vivipara. J Anim Ecol 50:733–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boudjemadi K, Lecomte J, Clobert J (1999) Influence of connectivity on demography and dispersal in two contrasting habitats: an experimental approach. J Anim Ecol 68:1207–1224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bullock JM, Kenward RE, Hails RS (2002) Dispersal ecology. British Ecological Society, Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  8. Clobert J, Danchin E, Dhondt AA, Nichols JD (2001) Dispersal. Oxford Univ. Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  9. Clobert J, Ims RA, Rousset F (2004) Causes, mechanisms and consequences of dispersal. In: Haski I, Gaggiotti OE (eds) Ecology, genetics and evolution of metapopulations. Academic, London, pp 307–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clobert J, Massot M, Lecomte J, Sorci G, de Fraipont M, Barbault R (1994) Determinants of dispersal behavior: the common lizard as a case of study. In: Vitt LJ, Pianka ER (eds) Lizard ecology: historical and experimental perspectives, evolutionary ecology part III. Princeton Univ. Press, New Jersey, pp 183–206Google Scholar
  11. Cooper WE Jr (1994) Chemical discrimination by tongue-flicking in lizards: a review with hypotheses on its origin and its ecological and phylogenetic relationships. J Chem Ecol 20:439–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. de Fraipont M, Clobert J, John-Alder H, Meylan S (2000) Increase pre-natal maternal corticosterone promotes philopatry of offspring in common lizards Lacerta vivipara. J Anim Ecol 69:404–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dingemanse NJ, Both C, van Noordwijk AJ, Rutten AL, Drent PJ (2003) Natal dispersal and personalities in great tits (Parus major). Proc R Soc Lond B 270:741–747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dodd CK (1993) The effects of toe-clipping on sprint performance of the lizard Cnemidophorus sexlineatus. J Herpetol 27:209–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Doligez B, Danchin E, Clobert J (2002) Public information and breeding habitat selection a wild bird population. Science 297:1168–1170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Downes S, Bauwens D (2004) Associations between first encounters and ensuing social relations within dyads of two species of lacertid lizards. Behav Ecol 15:938–945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dufty AM, Belthoff JR (2001) Proximate mechanisms of natal dispersal: the role of body condition and hormones. In: Clobert J, Danchin E, Dhondt AA, Nichols JD (eds) Dispersal. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, pp 217–229Google Scholar
  18. Edsman L (2001) Odours and ownership-scent matching in the territorial wall lizard. In: Vicente L, Crespo EG (eds) Mediterranean basin lacertid lizards. A biological approach. Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on the Lacertids of the Mediterranean Basin. Instituto da Conservaçao da Naturaleza, Lisboa, Portugal, pp 133Google Scholar
  19. Fraser DF, Gilliam JF, Daley MJ, Le AN, Skalski GT (2001) Explaining leptokurtic movement distributions: intrapopulation variation in boldness and exploration. Am Nat 158:124–135CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Giraldeau L-A, Valone TJ, Templeton JJ (2002) Potential disadvantages of using socially acquired information. Phil Trans R Soc Lond B 357:1559–1566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gundersen G, Andreassen HP, Ims RA (2002) Individual and population level determinants of immigration success on local habitat patches: an experimental approach. Ecol Lett 5:294–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hamilton WD, May RM (1977) Dispersal in stable habitats. Nature 269:578–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Holekamp KE, Smale L (1998) Dispersal status influences hormones and behavior in the male spotted hyena. Horm Behav 33:205–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Huntingford F, Turner AK (1987) Animal conflict. Chapman and Hall, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. Johnson ML, Gaines MS (1990) Evolution of dispersal: theoretical models and empirical tests using birds and mammals. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 21:449–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Krebs CJ (1978) A review of the Chitty hypothesis of population regulation. Can J Zool 61:2740–2750Google Scholar
  27. Le Galliard JF, Ferriere R, Clobert J (2003) Mother-offspring interactions affect natal dispersal in a lizard. Proc R Soc Lond B 270:1163–1169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Le Galliard JF, Ferriere R, Clobert J (2005) Effect of patch occupancy on immigration in the common lizard. J Anim Ecol 74:241–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lecomte J, Clobert J, Massot M (1992) Sex identification in juveniles of Lacerta vivipara. Amphib–Reptil 13:21–25Google Scholar
  30. Lecomte J, Boudjemadi K, Sarrazin F, Cally K, Clobert J (2004) Connectivity and homogenisation of population sizes: an experimental approach in Lacerta vivipara. J Anim Ecol 73:179–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lecomte J, Clobert J, Massot M, Barbault R (1994) Spatial and behavioural consequences of a density manipulation in the common lizard. Ecoscience 1:300–310Google Scholar
  32. Léna JP, de Fraipont M, Clobert J (2000) Affinity towards maternal odour and offspring dispersal in the common lizard. Ecol Lett 3:300–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Léna JP, Clobert J, de Fraipont M, Lecomte J, Guyot G (1998) The relative influence of density and kinship on dispersal in the common lizard. Behav Ecol 9:500–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lidicker WZ, Stenseth NC (1992) To disperse or not to disperse: who does it and why? In: Stenseth NC, Lidicker WZ Jr (eds) Animal dispersal: small mammals as a model. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 21–34Google Scholar
  35. López P, Martín J (2001) Fighting rules and rival recognition reduce costs of aggression in male lizards, Podarcis hispanica. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 49:111–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. López P, Martín J (2004) Sexual selection and chemoreception in lacertid lizards. In: Pérez-Mellado V, Riera N, Perera A (eds) The biology of lacertid lizards. Evolutionary and ecological perspectives. Institut Menorqui d’Estudis, Maó, Menorca, pp 119–137Google Scholar
  37. Lorenzon P, Clobert J, Massot M (2001) The contribution of phenotypic plasticity to adaptation in Lacerta vivipara. Evolution 55:392–404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Mason RT (1992) Reptilian pheromones. In: Gans C, Crews D (eds) Biology of the Reptilia, vol 18. Brain, hormones, and behavior. Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 114–228Google Scholar
  39. Massot M, Clobert J (1995) Influence of maternal food availability on offspring dispersal. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 37:413–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Massot M, Clobert J (2000) Processes at the origin of similarities in dispersal behaviour among siblings. J Evol Biol 13:707–719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Massot M, Clobert J, Lorenzon P, Rossi JM (2002) Condition dependent in dispersal and ontogeny of the dispersal behaviour: an experimental approach. J Anim Ecol 71:235–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Maynard Smith J (1982) Evolution and the theory of games. Cambridge Univ. Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  43. McCullagh P, Nelder JAS (1989) Generalized linear models, 2nd edn. Chapman and Hall, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  44. McShea WJ (1990) Social tolerance and proximate mechanisms of dispersal among winter groups of meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus. Anim Behav 39:346–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Meylan S, Belliure J, Clobert J, de Fraipont M (2002) Stress and body condition as prenatal and postnatal determinants of dispersal in the common lizard (Lacerta vivipara). Horm Behav 42:319–326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Murren CJ, Julliard R, Schlichting CD, Clobert J (2001) Dispersal, individual phenoytpe, and phenotypic plasticity. In: Clobert J, Danchin E, Dhondt AA, Nichols JD (eds) Dispersal. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, pp 261–272Google Scholar
  47. Nunes S, Duniec TR, Schweppe SA, Holekamp KE (1999) Energetic and endocrine mediation of natal dispersal behavior in Belding’s ground squirrels. Horm Behav 35:113–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Olsson M (1992) Contest success in relation to size and residency in male sand lizards, Lacerta agilis. Anim Behav 44:386–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. O’Riain MJ, Jarvis JUM, Faulkes CG (1996) A dispersive morph in the naked mole-rat. Nature 380:619–621PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ott JA, Scott DE (1999) The effects of toe clipping and PIT-tagging on growth and survival in metamorphic Ambystoma opacum. J Herpetol 33:344–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pastscniak-Arts M, Bendel JF (1990) Behavioural differences between locally recruiting and dispersing gray squirrels, Sciurus carolinensis. Can J Zool 68:935–941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Phillips JA, Alberts AC, Pratt NC (1993) Differential resource use, growth, and the ontogeny of social relationships in the green iguana. Physiol Behav 53:81–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pilorge T, Castanet J (1981) Détermination de l’age dans une population naturelle du lézard vivipare (Lacerta vivipara Jacquin 1787). Acta Oecol, (Oecol Gener) 2:3–16Google Scholar
  54. Pratt NC, Alberts AC, Fultonmedler KG, Phillips JA (1992) Behavioral, physiological, and morphological components of dominance and mate attraction in male green iguanas. Zoo Biol 11:153–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Riechert SE (1998) Game theory and animal contest. In: Dugatkin LA, Reeve HK (eds) Game theory and animal behavior. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, pp 64–93Google Scholar
  56. Rosenberry CS, Conner MC, Lancia RA (2001) Behavior and dispersal of white-tailed deer during the breeding season. Can J Zool 79:171–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. SAS Institute (1999) SAS/STAT user’s guide version 8. SAS Institute, Cary, NCGoogle Scholar
  58. Sinervo B, Clobert J (2003) Morphs, dispersal behaviour, genetic similarity, and the evolution of cooperation. Science 300:1949–1951PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Stamps J (1977) Social behavior and spacing patterns in lizards. In: Gans C, Tinke DW (eds) Biology of the Reptilia. A. Ecology and behaviour, vol VII. Academic, London, pp 265–335Google Scholar
  60. Stamps J (1991) The effect of conspecifics on habitat selection in territorial species. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 28:29–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Stamps JA, Krishnan VV (1994) Territory acquisition in lizards: I. First encounters. Anim Behav 47:1375–1385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Valone TJ, Templeton JJ (2002) Public information for the assessment of quality: a widespread social phenomenon. Phil Trans R Soc Lond B 357:1549–1557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Whitlock MC (2001) Dispersal and the genetic properties of metapopulations. In: Clobert J, Danchin E, Dhondt AA, Nichols JD (eds) Dispersal. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, pp 273–282Google Scholar
  64. Wilson DS, Clark AB, Coleman K, Dearstyne T (1994) Shyness and boldness in human and other animals. Trends Ecol Evol 9:442–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Ecología, Facultad de CienciasUniversidad de AlcaláMadridSpain
  2. 2.Laboratoire Evolution et Diversité BiologiqueStation Biologique du CNRS a MoulisSaint-GironsFrance
  3. 3.Laboratoire d’Ecologie, CNRS-UMR 7625Université de Paris VIParisFrance
  4. 4.Centro de Biologia AmbientalFaculdade de Ciências da Universidade de LisboaLisboaPortugal

Personalised recommendations