Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology

, Volume 60, Issue 4, pp 457–464 | Cite as

Meta-analysis of foraging and predation risk trade-offs in terrestrial systems

  • Jennifer L. VerdolinEmail author


Although there is ample evidence for the generality of foraging and predation trade-offs in aquatic systems, its application to terrestrial systems is less comprehensive. In this review, meta-analysis was used to analyze experiments on giving-up-densities in terrestrial systems to evaluate the overall magnitude of predation risk on foraging behavior and experimental conditions mediating its effect. Results indicate a large and significant decrease in foraging effort as a consequence of increased predation risk. Whether experiments were conducted under natural or artificial conditions produced no change in the overall effect predation had on foraging. Odor and live predators as a correlate of predation risk had weaker and nonsignificant effects compared to habitat characteristics. The meta-analysis suggests that the effect of predation risk on foraging behavior in terrestrial systems is strongly dependent on the type of predation risk being utilized.


Giving-up densities Predation Predation risk Foraging Optimal foraging Trade-offs Meta-analysis 



This work is in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a doctorate in Ecology and Evolution at Stony Brook University. I thank my advisor, Dr. Charles Janson, for his scientific and editorial contributions, Dr. Jessica Gurevitch her for comments and guidance in conducting the statistical analyses, and Dr. Joel S. Brown and Dr. Burt P. Kotler for their insightful reviews which significantly improved the quality of this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ecology and EvolutionStony Brook UniversityStony BrookUSA

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