Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology

, Volume 59, Issue 2, pp 191–197 | Cite as

Kin-related spatial structure in brown bears Ursus arctos

  • Ole-Gunnar Støen
  • Eva Bellemain
  • Solve Sæbø
  • Jon E. Swenson
Original Article

Abstract

Kin-related social structure may influence reproductive success and survival and, hence, the dynamics of populations. It has been documented in many gregarious animal populations, but few solitary species. Using molecular methods and field data we tested: (1) whether kin-related spatial structure exists in the brown bear (Ursus arctos), which is a solitary carnivore, (2) whether home ranges of adult female kin overlap more than those of nonkin, and (3) whether multigenerational matrilinear assemblages, i.e., aggregated related females, are formed. Pairwise genetic relatedness between adult (5 years and older) female dyads declined significantly with geographic distance, whereas this was not the case for male–male dyads or opposite sex dyads. The amount of overlap of multiannual home ranges was positively associated with relatedness among adult females. This structure within matrilines is probably due to kin recognition. Plotting of multiannual home-range centers of adult females revealed formation of two types of matrilines, matrilinear assemblages exclusively using an area and dispersed matrilines spread over larger geographic areas. The variation in matrilinear structure might be due to differences in competitive abilities among females and habitat limitations. The influence of kin-related spatial structure on inclusive fitness needs to be clarified in solitary mammals.

Keywords

Dispersal Genetic distance Matriline Social structure Philopatry 

References

  1. Atwood TC, Weeks HP (2003) Spatial home-range overlap and temporal interaction in eastern coyotes: the influence of pair types and fragmentation. Can J Zool 81:1589–1597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bellemain E (2004) Genetics of the Scandinavian brown bear (Ursus arctos): implications for biology and conservation. PhD Thesis, Agricultural University of NorwayGoogle Scholar
  3. Bertram BCR (1979) Serengeti predators and their social systems. In: Sinclair ARE, Norton-Griffiths M (eds) Serengeti: dynamics of an ecosystem. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 221–248Google Scholar
  4. Blanchard BM, Knight RR (1991) Movements of Yellowstone grizzly bears. Biol Conserv 58:41–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blouin MS (2003) DNA-based methods for pedigree reconstructions and kinship analysis in natural populations. Trends Ecol Evol 18:503–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cleveland WS (1979) Robust locally weighted regression and smoothing scatterplots. J Am Stat Assoc 74:829–836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Clutton-Brock TH, Guinness FE, Albon SD (1982) Red deer: behavior and ecology of two sexes. Edinburgh University Press, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  8. Dahle B, Swenson JE (2003a) Home ranges in adult Scandinavian brown bears Ursus arctos: effect of mass, sex, reproductive status, population density and habitat type. J Zool 260:329–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dahle B, Swenson JE (2003b) Family break-up in brown bears; are young forced to leave? J Mammal 84:536–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dietz EJ (1983) Permutation tests for association between two distance matrices. Syst Zool 32:21–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Glenn LP, Miller LE (1980) Seasonal movement of an Alaskan Peninsula brown bear population. Int Conf Bear Res Manage 4:307–312Google Scholar
  12. Gompper ME, Wayne RK (1996) Genetic relatedness among individuals within carnivore societies. In: Gittleman JL (ed) Carnivore behavior, ecology, and evolution, vol. 2. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, USA, pp 429–452Google Scholar
  13. Gouzoules S, Gouzoules H (1987) Kinship. In: Smuts BB, Cheney DL, Seyfarth RM, Wrangham RW, Struhsaker TT (eds) Primate societies. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 429–452Google Scholar
  14. Greenwood PJ (1980) Mating systems, philopatry and dispersal in birds and mammals. Anim Behav 28:1140–1162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hardy OJ, Vekemans X (2002) SPAGeDi: a versatil computer program to analyse spatial genetic structure at the individual or population levels. Mol Ecol Notes 2:218–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ishibashi Y, Saitoh T, Abe S, Yoshida MC (1997) Sex-related spatial kin structure in a spring population of grey-sided voles Clethrionomys rufocanus as revealed by mitrochondrial and microsatellite DAN analyses. Mol Ecol 6:63–71CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Johannesen E, Andreassen HP, Ims RA (2000) Spatial explicit demography: the effects habitat patch isolation have on vole matrilines. Ecol Lett 3:48–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kawata M (1987) The effect of kinship on spacing among female red-backed voles, Clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae. Oecologia 72:115–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lambin X, Krebs CJ (1993) Influence of female relatedness on the demography of Townsend's vole populations in spring. J Anim Ecol 62:536–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Liberg O, Von Schantz T (1985) Sex biased philopatry and dispersal in birds and mammals: the Oedipus hypothesis. Am Nat 126:129–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. MacColl ADC, Piertney SB, Moss R, Lambin X (2000) Spatial arrangement of kin affect recruitment success in young male red grouse. Oikos 90:261–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Manel S, Bellemain E, Swenson JE, Francois O (2004) Assumed and inferred structure of populations: the Scandinavian brown bears revisited. Mol Ecol 13:1327–1331CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Matson GM, Van Daele L, Goodwin E, Aumiller A, Reynolds HV, Hristienko H (1993) A laboratory manual for cementum age determination of Alaskan brown bear first premolar teeth. Matson's Laboratory, Milltown, Montana, USAGoogle Scholar
  24. McLellan BN, Hovey FW (2001) Natal disperal of grizzly bears. Can J Zool 79:838–844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pope TR (2000) Reproductive success increases with degree of kinship in cooperative coalitions of female red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 48:253–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Paetkau D, Strobeck C (1994) Microsatellite analysis of genetic variation in black bear populations. Mol Ecol 3:489–495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Proctor MF, McLellan B, Strobeck C, Barclay RMR (2004) Gender-specific dispersal distances of grizzly bears estimated by genetic analysis. Can J Zool 82:1108–1118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pusey AE (1987) Sex-biased dispersal and inbreeding avoidance in birds and mammals. Trends Ecol Evol 2:295–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ratnayeke S, Tuskan GA, Pelton MR (2002) Genetic relatedness and female spatial organization in a solitary carnivore, the raccoon, Procyon lotor. Mol Ecol 11:1115–1124CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Rogers LL (1987) Effects of food supply and kinship on social behavior, movements, and population growth of black bears in northeastern Minnesota. Wildl Mon 97Google Scholar
  31. Schenk A, Obbard ME, Kovacs KM (1998) Genetic relatedness and home-range overlap among female black bears (Ursus americanus) in northern Ontario, Canada. Can J Zool 76:1511–1519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Schwartz CC, Franzmann AW (1992) Dispersal and survival of subadult black bears from the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. J Wildl Manag 56:426–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Schwartz CC, Miller SD, Haroldson MA (2003) Grizzly bear. In: Feldhammer GA, Thompson BC, Chapman JA (eds) Wild mammals of North America: biology, management, and conservation, 2nd edn. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, pp 556–586Google Scholar
  34. Seaman DE, Millspaugh JJ, Kernohan BJ, Brundige GC, Raedeke KJ, Gitzen RA (1999) Effects of sample size on kernel home range estimates. J Wildl Manage 63:739–747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Smuts BB, Cheney DL, Seyfarth RM, Wrangham RW, Struhsaker TT (1987) Primate societies. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  36. Solberg KH, Drageseth O-M (2003) A test of methods to estimate brown bear (Ursus arctos) population size. MSc Thesis, Agricultural University of NorwayGoogle Scholar
  37. Swenson JE, Sandegren F, Bjärvall A, Söderberg A, Wabakken P, Franzén (1994) Size, trend, distribution and conservation of the brown bear Ursus arctos population in Sweden. Biol Conserv 70:9–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Swenson JE, Sandegren F, Söderberg A (1998) Geographic expansion of an increasing brown bear population: evidence for presaturation dispersal. J Anim Ecol 67:819–826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Swenson JE, Sandegren F, Brunberg S, Segerström P (2001) Factors associated with loss of brown bear cubs in Sweden. Ursus 12:69–80Google Scholar
  40. Valière N (2002) Gimlet: a computer program for analyzing genetic individual identification data. Mol Ecol Notes 2:377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Van Horn RC, Engh AL, Scribner KT, Funk SM, Holekamp KE (2004) Behavioural structuring of relatedness in the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) suggests direct fitness benefits of clan-level cooperation. Mol Ecol 13:449–458CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Waits LP, Taberlet P, Swenson JE, Sandegren F (2000) Nuclear DNA microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity and gene flow in the Scandinavian brown bear (Ursus arctos). Mol Ecol 9:421–431CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Wang J (2002) An estimator for pairwise relatedness using molecular markers. Genetics 160:1203–1215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Waser PM, Jones WT (1983) Natal philopatry among solitary mammals. Quart Rev Biol 58:355–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Waser PM, Keane B, Creel SR, Elliott LF, Minchella DJ (1994) Possible male coalitions in a solitary mongoose. Anim Behav 47:289–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wolff JO (1994) More on juvenile dispersal in mammals. Oikos 71:349–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Worton BJ (1989) Kernel methods for estimating the utilization distribution in home-range studies. Ecology 70:164–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wrangham RW (1980) On the evolution of ape social systems. Soc Sci Inform 18:334–368Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ole-Gunnar Støen
    • 1
  • Eva Bellemain
    • 2
  • Solve Sæbø
    • 3
  • Jon E. Swenson
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Ecology and Natural Resource ManagementNorwegian University of Life SciencesÅsNorway
  2. 2.Laboratoire d'Ecologie Alpine (LECA), Génomique des Populations et BiodiversitéUniversité Joseph Fourier, CNRS UMR 5553, BP 53Grenoble Cedex 9France
  3. 3.Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food ScienceNorwegian University of Life SciencesÅsNorway
  4. 4.Norwegian Institute for Nature ResearchTrondheimNorway

Personalised recommendations