Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology

, Volume 56, Issue 5, pp 420–425 | Cite as

Bigger testes do work more: experimental evidence that testis size reflects testicular cell proliferation activity in the marine invertebrate, the free-living flatworm Macrostomum sp.

  • Lukas Schärer
  • Peter Ladurner
  • Reinhard M. Rieger
Original Article


Evolutionary theory predicts that more resources are allocated to sperm production when sperm competition is high. This prediction is supported by both comparative and experimental data on static measures of male allocation, such as testis and ejaculate size. However, resource allocation is a dynamic process, and it is therefore important to evaluate if the static measures reflect this. Such an evaluation has to our knowledge never been done. Immunocytochemical labelling with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) allows visualisation of cells in S-phase. BrdU becomes incorporated into cells if, and only if, they are actively undergoing DNA duplication, which is a dynamic process. The number of BrdU-positive cells in the testis can hence serve as a dynamic measure of male allocation, i.e. testicular activity. We evaluate the relationship between testis size and testicular activity in the marine flatworm Macrostomum sp. In a previous study, we showed that testis size is phenotypically plastic in this species, and that worms make larger testes when they are raised in larger groups. We use this plasticity to experimentally produce variation in testis size, and demonstrate that larger testes are associated with higher testicular activity. Moreover, testis size and testicular activity were related linearly. We have thus, for the first time, shown that testis size is a good measure of resource allocation to the male function. Moreover, increased testicular activity is probably one of the first steps in the upregulation of sperm production. It is thus expected that testicular activity is a more sensitive measure of short-term variation in male allocation than the commonly used static measures.


Platyhelminthes Simultaneous hermaphrodite Sperm competition Stem cells Testis size 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lukas Schärer
    • 1
    • 2
  • Peter Ladurner
    • 1
  • Reinhard M. Rieger
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Ultrastructural Research and Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Zoology and LimnologyUniversity of InnsbruckInnsbruckAustria
  2. 2.Department of Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Animal Evolution and EcologyUniversity of MünsterMünsterGermany

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