Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology

, Volume 55, Issue 4, pp 325–331 | Cite as

Effects of kinship on territorial conflicts among groups of lions, Panthera leo

Original Article

Abstract

Inclusive fitness theory predicts that cost of tolerant behaviour during competitive interactions is lower for relatives than for nonrelatives. Many studies have examined the effect of relatedness on behaviour within social groups. In contrast, kin selection acting among groups has received less attention. The genetic structure of African lion (Panthera leo) populations creates a strong possibility that kin selection among groups modifies behaviour during group conflicts. We used playback experiments and genetic data to investigate the importance of relatedness during simulated territorial disputes in lions. However, we found no effect of relatedness on territorial behaviour. Degree of relatedness did not affect the decision to approach simulated intrusions, nor did it affect the behaviour during approaches. The decision to approach was instead affected by position within the territory and consecutive playback number (a measure of habituation). For playbacks that did elicit an approach, the speed of response was not detectably affected by relatedness, but was affected by odds (the ratio of residents to intruders), number of intruders, number of bouts, presence of cubs, position within the territory, temperature and playback number. Although responses were unaffected by relatedness, it remains possible that other aspects of behaviour during natural encounters among prides are affected by kin selection.

Keywords

Inter-group competition Group living Kin selection Panthera leo Territoriality 

References

  1. Baglione V, Canestrari D, Marcos JM, Ekman J (2003) Kin selection in cooperative alliances of Carrion Crows. Science 300:1947–1949CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bertram BCR (1975) Social factors affecting reproduction in lions. J Zool (Lond) 177:463–482Google Scholar
  3. Clutton-Brock TH, O’Riain MJ, Brotherton PNM, Gaynor D, Kansky R, Griffin AS, Manser M (1999) Selfish sentinels in cooperative mammals. Science 284:1640–1644CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Creel S, Creel NM (2002) The African wild dog: behaviour, ecology and conservation. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J.Google Scholar
  5. Creel SR, Waser PM (1994) Inclusive fitness and reproductive strategies in dwarf mongooses. Behav Ecol 5:339–348Google Scholar
  6. Dugatkin LA (1997) Can kinship ever inhibit the evolution of cooperation? Ecoscience 4:460–464Google Scholar
  7. Dugatkin LA, Mesterton-Gibbons M, Houston AI (1992) Beyond the Prisoner’s dilemma: toward a model to discriminate among mechanisms of cooperation in nature. Trends Evol Ecol 7:202–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dunn PO, Cockburn A, Mulder RA (1995) Fairy-wren helpers often care for young to which they are unrelated. Proc R Soc B 259:339–343Google Scholar
  9. Emlen ST (1995) An evolutionary theory of the family. Proc Natl Acad Sci 92:8092–8099PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Frame LH, Malcolm JR, Frame GW, van Lawick H (1979) Social organization of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) on the Serengeti plains, Tanzania 1967–1978. Z Tierpsychol 50:225–249Google Scholar
  11. Goodnight KF, Queller DC (1999) Computer software for performing likelihood tests of pedigree relationship using genetic markers. Mol Ecol 8:1231–1234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Grinnell J, McComb K (1996) Maternal grouping as a defense against infanticide by males: evidence from field playback experiments on African lions. Behav Ecol 7:55–59Google Scholar
  13. Grinnell J, Packer C, Pusey AE (1995) Cooperation in male lions: kinship, reciprocity or mutualism? Anim Behav 49:95–105Google Scholar
  14. Hamilton WD (1963) The evolution of altruistic behaviour. Am Nat 97:354–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hamilton WD (1964) The genetical evolution of social behaviour, I and II. J Theor Biol 7:1–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Heinsohn R (1997) Group territoriality in two populations of African lions. Anim Behav 53:1143–1147CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Heinsohn R, Packer C (1995) Complex cooperative strategies in group-territorial African lions. Science 269:1260–1262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Hughes C (1998) Integrating molecular techniques with field methods in studies of social behaviour: a revolution results. Ecology 79:383–399Google Scholar
  19. McComb K, Pusey A, Packer C, Grinnnell J (1993) Female lions can identify potentially infanticidal males from their roars. Proc R Soc B 252:59–64Google Scholar
  20. McComb K, Packer C, Pusey A (1994) Roaring and numerical assessment in contests between groups of female lions, Panthera leo. Anim Behav 47:379–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Menotti-Raymond M, David VA, Lyons LA, Schaffer AA; Tomlin JF, Hutton MK, O’ Brien SJ (1999) A genetic linkage map of microsatellites in the domestic cat (Felis catus). Genomics 57:9–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Packer C (1986) The ecology of sociality in felids. In: Rubenstein DI, Wrangham RW (eds) Ecological aspects of social evolution. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 429–451Google Scholar
  23. Packer C, Heinsohn R (1996) Reply to: lioness leadership. Science 271:1215–1216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Packer C, Pusey AE (1993) Dispersal, kinship and inbreeding in African lions. In: Thornhill NW (ed) The natural history of inbreeding and outbreeding. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 375–391Google Scholar
  25. Packer C, Gilbert DA, Pusey AE, O’Brien SJ (1991) A molecular genetic analysis of kinship and cooperation in African lions. Nature 351:562–565Google Scholar
  26. Packer C, Pusey AE, Eberly LE (2001) Egalitarianism in female African lions. Science 293:690–693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Perrin N, Mazalov V (2000) Local competition, inbreeding, and the evolution of sex-biased dispersal. Am Nat 155:116–127CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Pusey AE, Packer C (1987) The evolution of sex-biased dispersal in lions. Behaviour 101:275–310Google Scholar
  29. Queller DC (1994) Genetic relatedness in viscous populations. Evol Ecol 8:70–73Google Scholar
  30. Queller DC, Goodnight KF (1989) Estimating relatedness using genetic markers. Evolution 43:258–275Google Scholar
  31. Scheel D, Packer C (1991) Group hunting behaviour of lions: a search for cooperation. Anim Behav 41:697–710Google Scholar
  32. Spong G (2002) Space use in lions, Panthera leo, in the Selous Game Reserve. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 52:303–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Spong G, Creel S (2001) Deriving dispersal distances from genetic data. Proc R Soc B 268:2571–2574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Spong G, Creel S, Stone J, Björklund M (2002) Genetic structure of lions (Panthera leo L.) in the Selous Game Reserve: implications for the evolution of sociality. J Evol Biol 15:945–953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Stacey PB, Koenig WD (1990) Cooperative breeding in birds. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  36. Taylor PD (1992) Inclusive fitness in a homogeneous environment. Proc R Soc B 249:299–302Google Scholar
  37. Vehrencamp SL (1983) A model for the evolution of despotic versus egalitarian societies. Anim Behav 31:667–682Google Scholar
  38. West SA, Murray MG, Machado CA, Griffin AS, Herre EA (2001) Testing Hamilton’s rule with competition between relatives. Nature 409:510–513CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Wingfield JC, Moore MC (1987) Hormonal, social and environmental factors in the reproductive biology of free-living male birds. In: Crews D (ed) Psychobiology of reproductive behaviour. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., pp 148–175Google Scholar
  40. Wingfield JC, Wada M (1989) Changes in plasma levels of testosterone during male–male interactions in the song sparrow, Melospiza meldoia: time course and specificity of response. J Comp Physiol A 166:189–194Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Animal Ecology, Evolutionary Biology CentreUppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden
  2. 2.Department of EcologyMontana State UniversityBozemanUSA
  3. 3.Department of ZoologyUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK

Personalised recommendations