International Orthopaedics

, Volume 43, Issue 4, pp 841–851 | Cite as

Current concepts for lumbar disc herniation

  • Thami BenzakourEmail author
  • Vasilios Igoumenou
  • Andreas F. Mavrogenis
  • Ahmed Benzakour
Review Article



To present the pathophysiology, biology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and current treatment options for lumbar disc herniation.


A thorough literature search was undertaken in PubMed and Google Scholar to summarize the current knowledge and future perspectives on lumbar disc herniation.


Several changes in the biology of the intervertebral disc are thought to contribute to disc herniation; nevertheless, the exact inciting event leading to disc herniation is yet to be discovered. Non-operative treatments have stood the test of time as the first-line treatment for most patients with lumbar disc herniation; however, operative treatment remains the current gold standard, with minimally invasive endoscopic microdiscectomy techniques showing best results with respect to postoperative pain and function.


The exact event leading to disc herniation remains unclear. Non-operative treatments should be the first-line treatment for most patients with lumbar disc herniation. Operative treatment remains the current gold standard, with minimally invasive endoscopic microdiscectomy techniques showing best results with respect to postoperative pain and function. Regenerative medicine is promising.


Intervertebral disc Lumbar spine Disc herniation Disc diseases 


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Copyright information

© SICOT aisbl 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thami Benzakour
    • 1
    Email author
  • Vasilios Igoumenou
    • 2
  • Andreas F. Mavrogenis
    • 2
  • Ahmed Benzakour
    • 3
  1. 1.Zerktouni Orthopaedic ClinicCasablancaMorocco
  2. 2.First Department of OrthopaedicsNational and Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of MedicineAthensGreece
  3. 3.Orthopaedic and Traumatology Surgery Department (Pr Ch Court), AP-HP ParisBicêtre University Hospital, Paris-Sud University ORSAYLe Kremlin-BicêtreFrance

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