Reliability of a four-column classification for tibial plateau fractures
A four-column classification system offers a different way of evaluating tibial plateau fractures. The aim of this study is to compare the intra-observer and inter-observer reliability between four-column and classic classifications.
This is a reliability study, which included patients presenting with tibial plateau fractures between January 2013 and September 2015 in a level-1 trauma centre. Four orthopaedic surgeons blindly classified each fracture according to four different classifications: AO, Schatzker, Duparc and four-column. Kappa, intra-observer and inter-observer concordance were calculated for the reliability analysis.
Forty-nine patients were included. The mean age was 39 ± 14.2 years, with no gender predominance (men: 51%; women: 49%), and 67% of the fractures included at least one of the posterior columns. The intra-observer and inter-observer concordance were calculated for each classification: four-column (84%/79%), Schatzker (60%/71%), AO (50%/59%) and Duparc (48%/58%), with a statistically significant difference among them (p = 0.001/p = 0.003). Kappa coefficient for intr-aobserver and inter-observer evaluations: Schatzker 0.48/0.39, four-column 0.61/0.34, Duparc 0.37/0.23, and AO 0.34/0.11.
The proposed four-column classification showed the highest intra and inter-observer agreement. When taking into account the agreement that occurs by chance, Schatzker classification showed the highest inter-observer kappa, but again the four-column had the highest intra-observer kappa value. The proposed classification is a more inclusive classification for the posteromedial and posterolateral fractures. We suggest, therefore, that it be used in addition to one of the classic classifications in order to better understand the fracture pattern, as it allows more attention to be paid to the posterior columns, it improves the surgical planning and allows the surgical approach to be chosen more accurately.
KeywordsTibial fractures/classification Intraobserver variability Interobserver variability Tibial plateau fracture
The authors thank Dr. Helen Reina for the copy editing of this manuscript, as well as Juan Esteban Restrepo, for his help with statistical calculations and analysis.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
This research received no funding.
For this type of study formal consent is not required.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
The institutional review board approved this study.
- 1.Gerard-Marchant P (1939) Fractures des plateaux tibiaux. Rev Chir Orthop 26:499–546Google Scholar
- 2.Duparc J, Ficat P (1960) Fractures Articulares de LExtremite Supérieure du Tibia. Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot 46:398–486Google Scholar
- 3.Huten D, Duparc J, Cavagna R (1990) Fractures récentes des plateaux tibiaux de l’adulte. Éditions Techniques, Enc Med Chir, Appareil locomoteur, ParisGoogle Scholar
- 4.Gicquel T, Najihi N, Vendeuvre T, Teyssedou S, Gayet LE, Huten D (2013) Tibial plateau fractures: reproducibility of three classifications (Schatzker, AO, Duparc) and a revised Duparc classification. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 99(7):805–816. doi: 10.1016/j.otsr.2013.06.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 5.Schatzker J, McBrown R, Bruce D (1979) The tibial plateau fracture: the Toronto experience 1968-1975. Clin Orthop Relat Res 138:94–104Google Scholar
- 10.Martínez A, Cayón M (1999) Fracturas del platillo tibial postero medial. Rev Colomb Ortop Traumatol 13(1):37–41Google Scholar
- 11.Doornberg JN, Rademakers MV, van den Bekerom MP, Kerkhoffs GM, Ahn J, Steller EP, Kloen P (2011) Two-dimensional and three-dimensional computed tomography for the classification and characterisation of tibial plateau fractures. Injury 42(12):1416–1425. doi: 10.1016/j.injury.2011.03.025 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 19.Altman DG (1992) Practical statistics for medical research. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar