International Orthopaedics

, Volume 40, Issue 12, pp 2553–2558 | Cite as

Features of human autologous hamstring graft elongation after pre-tensioning in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

  • Masataka Fujii
  • Takayuki FurumatsuEmail author
  • Shinichi Miyazawa
  • Takaaki Tanaka
  • Hiroto Inoue
  • Yuya Kodama
  • Kenji Masuda
  • Noritaka Seno
  • Toshifumi Ozaki
Original Paper



Precise pre-tensioning protocol of the graft has not been determined in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The aims of this study are to measure the human autologous graft elongation, and to reveal what portion of the graft elongated greater after pre-tensioning in ACL reconstruction.


Twenty-four hamstring tendon grafts which were harvested from patients were included. A continuous load of 150 N was applied to the graft twice for 30 seconds each (150 N-1 minute), and the same loading was repeatedly applied (150 N-2 minute). The amount of elongation of the tendon portion (Length T) and the stitched portion (Length S) were measured after each pre-tensioning.


Length S gradually increased by 1.57 ± 0.67 mm after the 150 N-1 minute pre-tensioning and by 2.12 ± 0.76 mm after the 150 N-2 minute pre-tensioning, respectively. Length T was not significantly elongated after 150 N-1 min (p = 0.66) and 150 N-2 min (p = 0.59).


Graft elongation of the approximately 2 mm was observed, particularly in the stitched portion. It is necessary for a surgeon to focus on careful removal of slack from each stitch during suturing.


Graft elongation Hamstring tendon Pretensioning Anterior cruciate ligament 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

Funding information

No funding sources were provided for this study.


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Copyright information

© SICOT aisbl 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masataka Fujii
    • 1
  • Takayuki Furumatsu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Shinichi Miyazawa
    • 1
  • Takaaki Tanaka
    • 1
  • Hiroto Inoue
    • 1
  • Yuya Kodama
    • 1
  • Kenji Masuda
    • 2
  • Noritaka Seno
    • 2
  • Toshifumi Ozaki
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryOkayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical SciencesOkayamaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Orthopaedic SurgerySumitomo Besshi HospitalNiihamaJapan

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