International Orthopaedics

, Volume 38, Issue 11, pp 2363–2368 | Cite as

The biomechanical characteristics of arthroscopic tibial inlay techniques for posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: in vitro comparison of tibial graft tunnel placement

  • Karl Peter Benedetto
  • Thomas Hoffelner
  • Michael Osti
Original Paper



The hypothesis of the present study was that the biomechanical properties of arthroscopic tibial inlay procedures depend on tibial graft bone block position.


Five paired fresh-frozen human cadaveric knee specimens were randomized to a reconstruction with quadriceps tendon placing the replicated footprint either to the more proximal margin of the remnants of the anatomical PCL fibrous attachments (group A) or to the distal margin of the anatomical PCL fibrous attachments at the edge of the posterior tibial facet to the posterior tibial cortex in level with the previous physis line (group B). The relative graft-tibia motions, post cycling pull-out failure load and failure properties of the tibia-graft fixation were measured. Cyclic displacement at 5, 500 and 1,000 cycles, stiffness and yield strength were calculated.


The cyclic displacement at 5, 500 and 1,000 cycles measured consistently more in group A without statistically significant difference (4.11 ± 1.37, 7.73 ± 2.73 and 8.18 ± 2.75 mm versus 2.81 ± 1.33, 6.01 ± 2.37 and 6.46 ± 2.37 mm). Mean ultimate load to failure (564.6 ± 212.3) and yield strength (500.2 ± 185.9 N) were significantly higher in group B (p < 0.05).


Replicating the anatomical PCL footprint at the posterior edge of the posterior tibial facet yields higher pull-out strength and less cycling loading displacement compared to a tunnel position at the centre of the posterior tibial facet.


PCL reconstruction All-inside technique Tibial tunnel position Biomechanics 



The authors thank Arthrex Inc. for assistance in providing laboratory materials and equipment used for this project.


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Copyright information

© SICOT aisbl 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karl Peter Benedetto
    • 1
  • Thomas Hoffelner
    • 2
  • Michael Osti
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Trauma Surgery and Sports TraumatologyAcademic Hospital FeldkirchFeldkirchAustria
  2. 2.Department of Trauma Surgery and Sports TraumatologyParacelsus Medical University SalzburgSalzburgAustria

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