Advertisement

International Orthopaedics

, Volume 37, Issue 2, pp 181–186 | Cite as

The evolution of ACL reconstruction over the last fifty years

  • Pierre Chambat
  • Christian Guier
  • Bertrand Sonnery-Cottet
  • Jean-Marie Fayard
  • Mathieu Thaunat
Review Article

Abstract

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has evolved considerably over the past 30 years. This has largely been due to a better understanding of ACL anatomy and in particular a precise description of the femoral and tibial insertions of its two bundles. In the 1980s, the gold standard was anteromedial bundle reconstruction using the middle third of the patellar ligament. Insufficient control of rotational laxity led to the development of double bundle ACL reconstruction. This concept, combined with a growing interest in preservation of the ACL remnant, led in turn to selective reconstruction in partial tears, and more recently to biological reconstruction with ACL remnant conservation. Current ACL reconstruction techniques are not uniform, depending on precise analysis of the type of lesion and the aspect of the ACL remnant in the intercondylar notch.

Keywords

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Patellar Tendon Femoral Tunnel Tibial Tunnel 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Schinder OS (2012) Surgery for anterior cruciate deficiency: a historical perspective. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 20(7):1227–1244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    O’Donoghue DH (1973) Reconstruction for medial instability of the knee: techniques and results in sixty cases. J Bone Joint Surg Br 55-A:941–954Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nicholas JA (1973) The five one reconstruction for antero medial instability of the knee. J Bone Joint Surg Br 55-A:899–922Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hughston JC, Eilers AF (1973) The role of the posterior oblique ligament in repairs of acute medial ligament tear of the knee. J Bone Joint Surg Br 55(5):923–940Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Galway R, Beaupré A, mac Intosh DL (1973) A clinical sign of symptomatic cruciate insufficiency. J Bone Joint Surg Br 54-B:763–764Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Torg JS, Conrad W, Kalen V (1976) Clinical diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament instability in athlete. Am J Sports Med 4:84–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lemaire M (1967) Ruptures anciennes du ligament croisé antérieur. Fréquence-clinique-traitement. J Chir 93:311–320Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Noulis G (1875) Entorse du genou Thèse N° 142 Fac Med Paris 1-53Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lemaire M (1975) Instabilité chronique du genou. Techniques et résultat des plasties ligamentaires en traumatologie sportive. J Chir 110:281–294Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Matti H (1918) Ersatz des gerissenen vorderen kreuzbandes. Durch Schreiben 17:451–452Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bennet GE (1926) The use of fascia lata for the reinforcement of relaxed joints. Arch Surg 13:655–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bosworth DM, Bosworth BM (1936) Use of fascia lata to stabilize the knee in case of ruptured crucial ligament. J Bone Joint Surg Br 18:178–179Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    MacIntosh DL, Darby CA (1976) Lateral substitution reconstruction. J Bone Joint Surg Br 58B:142Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jäger M, Wirth CJ (1978) Kapselband läsion: Biomecanik, Diagnostik und therapies Thieme StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Losee RE, Johnson TR, Southwick WO (1978) Anterior sub luxation of the lateral tibial plateau: a diagnostic test and operative repair. J Bone Joint Surg Br 60-A:1015–1030Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ellison AE (1979) Distal iliotibial transfer for antero lateral rotatory instability of the knee. J Bone Joint Surg Br 61-A:330–337Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Müller W (1983) The Knee. Form, function and ligament reconstruction. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg and New-YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Andrews JR, Sanders RA (1983) A “mini reconstruction” technique in treating antero lateral rotatory instability. Clin Orthop Relat Res 172:93–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dodds AL, Gupte CM, Neyret P, Williams AM, Amis AA (2011) Extra articular techniques in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. J Bone Joint Surg Br 93-B:1440–1448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jones KG (1963) Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. J Bone Joint Surg Br 45-A:925–932Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Erikson E (1976) Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. Orthop Clin N Am 7:167–179Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bückner H (1966) Eine neue method der krezbandplastik. Chirurgie 37:413–414Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Insall J, Joseph D, Aglietti P, Campbell R (1981) Bone block illio tibial band transfer for anterior cruciate insufficiency. J Bone Joint Surg Br 63-A:560–569Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mac Culloch P, Lattermann C, Boland AL, Bach BR (2007) An illustrated history of anterior cruciate ligament surgery. J Knee Surg 20:95–104Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Franke K (1976) Clinical experience in 130 cruciate ligament reconstructions. Orthop Clin N Am 7:191–193Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Clancy WG, Nelson DA, Reider B, Narechania RG (1982) Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using one third of the patellar ligament augmented by extra articular tendon transfers. J Bone Joint Surg Br 64-A:252–359Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dejour H, Dejour D, Aït Si Selmi T (1999) Laxité chronique du genou traité par une greffe de tendon rotulien libre et une plastie extra articulaire antérolatérale. 10 ans de recul. 148 cas. Rev Chir Orthop Réparatrice Appar Locomot 85:777–789Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lambert KL (1983) Vascularized patellar tendon graft with rigid internal fixation for anterior cruciate ligament insufficiency. Clin Orthop Relat Res 172:85–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kurosaka M, Yoshiya S, Andrish JT (1987) A biomechanical comparison of different techniques of graft fixation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Am J Sports Med 15:225–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dandy DJ, Flanagan JP, Steenmeyer V (1982) Arthroscopy and the management of the ruptured anterior cruciate ligament. Clin Orthop Relat Res 167:43–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chambat P, Verdot FX (2006) Reconstruction du ligament croisé antérieur avec un tunnel fémoral de dehors en dedans. In: Franck A, Dorfmann H, (éd) Arthroscopie, 2ème édition. Elsevier 139-142Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Galeazzi R (1934) La recostituzione dei ligamenti crociati del ginocchio. Atti e Memorie della Societa lombarda di Chirurgica 13:302–317Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Macey HB (1939) A new operative procedure for the repair of ruptured cruciate ligament of the knee joint. Surg Gynecol Obstet 69:108–109Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cho KO (1975) Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament by semitendinosus tenodesis. J Bone Joint Surg Br 57-A:608–612Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Puddu JC (1980) Method for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament using semitendinosus tendon. Am J Sports Med 8(6):402–404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lipscomb AB, Jonhston RK, Synder RB, Warburton MJ, Gilbert PP (1982) Evaluation of hamstring strength following use of semitendinosus and gracilis tendons to reconstruct the anterior cruciate ligament. Am J Sports Med 10:340–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Martin SD, Martin TL, Brown CH (2002) Anterior cruciate ligament fixation. Orthop Clin N Am 33:685–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Marcacci M, Zaffagnini S, Iacono F, Neri MP, Loreti I, Petitto A (1998) Arthoscopic intra and extra articular anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with gracilis and semi tendinosus tendons. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 6:68–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Yunes M, Richmond JC, Engels EA, Pinczewski LA (2001) Patellar versus hamstring tendons in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a meta-analysis. Arthroscopy 17:248–257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Freedman KB, D’Amato MJ, Nedeff DD, Kaz A, Bach BR (2003) Arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a meta-analysis comparing patellar tendon and hamstring tendon autografts. Am J Sports Med 31:2–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Goldblatt JP, Fitzsimmons SE, Balk E, Richmond JC (2005) Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: meta-analysis of patellar tendon versus hamstring tendon autograft. Arthroscopy 21:791–803PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Biau DJ, Katsahian S, Kartus J, Harilainen A, Feller JA, Sajovic M, Ejerhed L, Zaffagnini S, Röpke M, Nizard R (2009) Patellar tendon versus hamstring tendon autograft for reconstructing the anterior cruciate ligament:a meta-analysis based on individual patient data. Am J Sports Med 37:2470–2478PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Chambat P, Vargas R, Fayard JM, Lemaire B, Sonnery-Cottet B (2008) Résultat des reconstructions du ligament croisé antérieur sous contrôle arthroscopique avec un recul supérieur à 15 ans. In: Chambat P, Neyret P (éd) Le genou et le sport du ligament à la prothèse. Sauramps Médical; pp 147-152Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Muneta T, Sekiya I, Yagishita K, Pguichi T, Yamamoto H, Shinomiya K (1999) Two bundles reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament using semitendinosis tendon with endo buttons: operative technique and preliminary results. Arthroscopy 15:618–624PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Yasuda K, Kondo E, Ichiyama H et al (2004) Anatomic reconstruction of the anteromedial and posterolateral bundles of the anterior cruciate ligament using hamstring tendon grafts. Arthroscopy 20:1015–1025PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Sonnery-Cottet B, Chambat P (2006) Anatomic double bundle: a new concept in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using quadriceps tendon. Arthroscopy 22:1249–1952PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Meredick RB, Vance KJ, Appleby D, Lubowitz JH (2009) Outcome of single versus double bundle reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a meta-analysis. Am J Sports Med 38:25–34Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Yasuda K, Tanabe Y, Kondo E, Kitumara N, Tohyama H (2010) Anatomic double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Arthroscopy 26((9) Suppl 1):S21–S34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ochi M, Adachi N, Deie M, Kanaya A (2006) Anterior cruciate ligament augmentation procedure with a 1 incision technique: antero medial bundle or postero lateral bundle reconstruction. Arthroscopy 22:463–468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Siebold R, Fu F (2008) Assessment and augmentation of symptomatic anteromedial or postero lateral bundle tears of the anterior cruciate ligament. Arthroscopy 24:1289–1298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Löcherbach C, Zayani R, Chambat P, Sonnery-Cottet B (2010) Biologically enhanced ACL reconstruction. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 96(7):810–815PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ochi M, Adachi N, Uchio Y, Deie M, Kumahashi N, Ishikawa M, Sera S (2009) A minimum 2 years follow-up after selective anteromedial or posterolateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Arthroscopy 25(2):117–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Sonnery-Cottet B, Lavoie F, Ogassawara R et al (2010) Selective anteromédial bundle reconstruction in partial ACL tears: a series of 36 patients with mean 24 months follow-up. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 18:47–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Borbon CA, Mouzopoulos G, Siebold R (2012) Why perform an ACL augmentation? Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 20(2):245–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Arnoczki SP, Tavin GB, Marshall JL (1982) Anterior cruciate replacementusing patellar tendon. An evaluation of graft revascularization in the dog. Am J Bone Joint Surg 64:217–224Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ochi M, Isawa J, Uchio Y, Adachi N, Sumen Y (1999) The regeneration of sensory neurons in the reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. Br J Bone Joint Surg 81:902–906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Löcherbach C, Zayani R, Chambat P, Sonnery-Cottet B (2010) Biologically enhanced ACL reconstruction. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 96(7):810–815PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pierre Chambat
    • 1
  • Christian Guier
    • 2
  • Bertrand Sonnery-Cottet
    • 1
  • Jean-Marie Fayard
    • 1
  • Mathieu Thaunat
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre Orthopédique SantyUnité Genou – 1er EtageLyonFrance
  2. 2.JacksonUSA

Personalised recommendations