International Orthopaedics

, Volume 36, Issue 10, pp 2173–2179 | Cite as

Is the expression of Transforming Growth Factor-Beta1 after fracture of long bones solely influenced by the healing process?

  • Georg Kaiser
  • Anita Thomas
  • Julia Köttstorfer
  • Mathias Kecht
  • Kambiz Sarahrudi
Original Paper



Circulating TGF-β1 levels were found to be a predictor of delayed bone healing and non-union. We therefore aimed to investigate some factors that can influence the expression of TGF-β1. The correlation between the expression of TGF-β1 and the different socio-demographic parameters was analysed.


Fifty-one patients with long bone fractures were included in the study and divided into different groups according to their age, gender, cigarette smoking status, diabetes mellitus and regular alcohol intake. TGF-β1 levels were analysed in patient’s serum and different groups were retrospectively compared.


Significantly lower TFG-β1 serum concentrations were observed in non-smokers compared to smokers at week 8 after surgery. Significantly higher concentrations were found in male patients compared to females at week 24. Younger patients had significantly higher concentrations at week 24 after surgery compared to older patients. Concentrations were significantly higher in patients without diabetes compared to those with diabetes at six weeks after surgery. Patients with chronic alcohol abuse had significantly higher concentrations compared to those patients without chronic alcohol abuse.


TGF-β1 serum concentrations vary depending upon smoking status, age, gender, diabetes mellitus and chronic alcohol abuse at different times and therefore do not seem to be a reliable predictive marker as a single-point-in-time measurement for fracture healing.


Nicotine Fracture Healing Growth Factor Expression Chronic Alcohol Consumption Chronic Alcohol Abuse 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This study was supported by grants from the Lorenz Böhler Foundation and the Austrian Science Fund (FWF grant #: P19188-B09) to K. Sarahrudi.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Georg Kaiser
    • 1
  • Anita Thomas
    • 2
  • Julia Köttstorfer
    • 1
  • Mathias Kecht
    • 1
  • Kambiz Sarahrudi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Trauma SurgeryMedical University of ViennaViennaAustria
  2. 2.Laboratory for Cardiovascular Research, Center of Anatomy and Cell BiologyMedical University of ViennaViennaAustria

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