International Orthopaedics

, Volume 34, Issue 1, pp 3–12 | Cite as

Efficacy of minimally invasive techniques for enhancement of fracture healing: evidence today

  • Ippokratis Pountos
  • Theodora Georgouli
  • George Kontakis
  • Peter V. Giannoudis


The successful treatment of nonunions represents a major challenge for orthopaedic surgeons. Lately, ongoing advances made in the field of molecular medicine and molecular biology have increased our understanding of the pathways and involvement of mediators surrounding the bone healing process. As a result, the surgeon’s armamentarium has been increased in terms of options for intervention. This article aims to provide an overview of minimally invasive techniques applicable in the treatment of nonunions of fractures.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ippokratis Pountos
    • 1
  • Theodora Georgouli
    • 1
  • George Kontakis
    • 2
  • Peter V. Giannoudis
    • 3
  1. 1.Academic Department of Trauma & Orthopaedics, School of MedicineUniversity of LeedsLeedsUK
  2. 2.Department of Trauma & Orthopaedic Surgery, School of MedicineUniversity of CreteCreteGreece
  3. 3.Academic Department of Trauma & Orthopaedic SurgerySchool of Medicine, University of Leeds, Clarendon WingLeedsUK

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