International Orthopaedics

, Volume 30, Issue 6, pp 484–489

Giant cell tumour of bone: morphological, biological and histogenetical aspects

Review

Abstract

The giant cell tumour of bone (GCT) is a locally aggressive intraosseous neoplasm of obscure biological behaviour. Although well defined in clinical, radiological and histological terms, detailed information on its biological development is still relatively incomplete. The tumoral tissue consists of three cell types – the neoplastic giant cell tumour stromal cells (GCTSC), representing the proliferative fraction, secondarily recruited mononuclear histiocytic cells (MNHC) and multinuclear giant cells (MNGC). These cellular components interact together with factors that have a role in regulating osteoclast function in normal bone tissue (e.g. RANK, RANKL, OPG, M-CSF). Recent publications suggest that the neoplastic stromal cells express differentiation features of mesenchymal stem cells. Further research of the pathogenesis of GCT as well as the complex interactions of its cellular populations may provide the knowledge necessary for developing approaches for a biological-based therapy of this neoplasm.

Résumé

Les tumeurs à cellules géantes (GCT) sont des tumeurs localement agressives de type néoplasme intra osseux don't les mécanismes biologiques restent relativement obscurs. Cependant si ces tumeurs sont bien définies sur le plan clinique, radiologique et histologique, les détails marquants de leur développement biologique restent inconnus. Le tissu tumoral consiste en un stroma de tumeurs à cellules géantes (GCTSC) qui représente la partie proliférative de la tumeur avec adjonction secondaire de cellules de type histogitaire mononuclées (MNHC) et de cellules géantes (MNGC). Ces composants cellulaires interagissent avec un certain nombre de facteurs régulant l’action ostéoclastique du tissu osseux normal (e.g. RANK, RANKL, OPG, M-CSF). De récentes publications permettent de penser que ce stroma cellulaire de type néoplasique exprime une différenciation de cellules mésenchymateuses. De prochaines recherches sur la pathogénèse des tumeurs à cellules géantes ainsi que sur les interactions complexes des différentes populations cellulaires devraient permettre d’approcher un traitement médical pour ce type de néoplasme.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of OsteopathologyUniversity Medical Center Hamburg-EppendorfHamburgGermany

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