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Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy

, Volume 63, Issue 10, pp 991–997 | Cite as

Shaping of an effective immune microenvironment to and by cancer cells

  • Etienne Becht
  • Jeremy Goc
  • Claire Germain
  • Nicolas A. Giraldo
  • Marie-Caroline Dieu-Nosjean
  • Catherine Sautès-Fridman
  • Wolf-Herman FridmanEmail author
Review

Abstract

A high density of intratumoral effector memory CD8+/Th1 T cells is associated with favorable prognosis in most cancers and may be induced or increased by immunotherapy. Efficient adaptive immune reactions are shaped in tumor adjacent tertiary lymphoid structures, which exhibit all characteristics of immunity generating lymphoid formations in reactive lymph nodes. Malignant tumor cells impact favorably or deleteriously their immune microenvironment if they bear genetic mutations that result in neo-antigens or by producing chemokines and cytokines that recruit lymphocytes and myeloid cells or increase inflammation and neo-angiogenesis. This intricate network of interactions results in control or escape of tumors, and its understanding will help define goals to monitor efficiency of immunotherapies.

Keywords

Tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) Tumor shaping of immune contextures Prognostic impact of immune cells Immune microenvironment 

Abbreviations

AID

Activation-induced cytidine deaminase

CAR

Chimeric antigen receptor

CIN

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

CT

Core tumor

DC

Dendritic cell

HPV

Human papilloma virus

IM

Invasive margin

MDSC

Myeloid-derived suppressor cell

MSI

Microsatellite instability

NSCLC

Non-small cell lung cancer

OS

Overall survival

PFS

Progression-free survival

SLO

Secondary lymphoid organ

Ti-BALT

Tumor-induced bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue

TIL

Tumor-infiltrating leukocyte

TLS

Tertiary lymphoid structure

Treg cell

Regulatory T cell

Notes

Acknowledgments

We wish to thank Marco Alifano, Luc de Chaisemartin Diane Damotte, Samantha Knockaert, Laetitia Lacroix, Audrey Lupo, Hanane Ouakrim, Romain Remark and Pierre Validire for their active participation to the studies and Pierre Laurent-Puig, Aurelien de Reyniès, Benoit Beuselinck and Jessica Zucman-Rossi for their numerous and exciting discussions. This work was supported by Institut National de la Santé er de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), University Paris Descartes, University Pierre et Marie Curie, SIRIC Cancer Research and Personalized Medicine (CARPEM), the LabeX Immuno-oncology, Institut National du Cancer and Canceropole Ile de France (2011-1-PLBIO-06-INSERM 6-1, PLBIO09-088-IDF-KROEMER, 11LAXE62_9UMS872 FRIDMAN).

Conflict of interest

Wolf-Herman Fridman received honorarium from Laboratoire du Fractionnement et des Biotechnologies (LFB), Pierre Fabre Medicament and Sanofi. The other authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Etienne Becht
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jeremy Goc
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Claire Germain
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Nicolas A. Giraldo
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Marie-Caroline Dieu-Nosjean
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Catherine Sautès-Fridman
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Wolf-Herman Fridman
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory Cancer, Immune Control and Escape, UMRS 1138 INSERMCordeliers Research CenterParis Cedex 06France
  2. 2.Université Paris DescartesParisFrance
  3. 3.Université Pierre et Marie CurieParisFrance

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