CAR T cells transform to trucks: chimeric antigen receptor–redirected T cells engineered to deliver inducible IL-12 modulate the tumour stroma to combat cancer
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Adoptive T cell therapy recently achieved impressive efficacy in early-phase clinical trials; this significantly raises the profile of immunotherapy in the fight against cancer. A broad variety of tumour cells can specifically be targeted by patients’ T cells, which are redirected in an antibody-defined, major histocompatibility complex–unrestricted fashion by endowing them with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). Despite promising results for some haematologic malignancies, the stroma of large, established tumours, the broad plethora of infiltrating repressor cells, and cancer cell variants that had lost the target antigen limit their therapeutic efficacy in the long term. This article reviews a newly described strategy for overcoming some of these shortcomings by engineering CAR T cells with inducible or constitutive release of IL-12. Once redirected, these T cells are activated, and released IL-12 accumulates in the tumour lesion where it promotes tumour destruction by at least two mechanisms: (1) induction of an innate immune cell response towards those cancer cells which are invisible to redirected T cells and (2) triggering programmatic changes in immune-suppressive cells. Given the enormous complexity of both tumour progression and immune attack, the upcoming strategies using CAR-redirected T cells for local delivery of immune-modulating payloads exhibited remarkable efficacy in pre-clinical models, suggesting their evaluation in clinical trials.
KeywordsAdoptive cell therapy T cell Chimeric antigen receptor IL-12 Innate immunity PIVAC 11
Work in the author’s laboratory was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Bonn, the Deutsche Krebshilfe, Bonn, and the Wilhelm Sander-Stiftung, München.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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