Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy

, Volume 60, Issue 8, pp 1061–1074

Cooperativity of adaptive and innate immunity: implications for cancer therapy


DOI: 10.1007/s00262-011-1053-z

Cite this article as:
Shanker, A. & Marincola, F.M. Cancer Immunol Immunother (2011) 60: 1061. doi:10.1007/s00262-011-1053-z


The dichotomy of immunology into innate and adaptive immunity has created conceptual barriers in appreciating the intrinsic two-way interaction between immune cells. An emerging body of evidence in various models of immune rejection, including cancer, indicates an indispensable regulation of innate effector functions by adaptive immune cells. This bidirectional cooperativity in innate and adaptive immune functions has broad implications for immune responses in general and for regulating the tumor-associated inflammation that overrides the protective antitumor immunity. Mechanistic understanding of this two-way immune cross-talk could provide insights into novel strategies for designing better immunotherapy approaches against cancer and other diseases that normally defy immune control.


Innate immunity Adaptive T cells Natural killer cells Effector function Immune regulation Cancer immunotherapy 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Lymphocyte Function, Department of Biochemistry and Cancer Biology, School of MedicineMeharry Medical CollegeNashvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer CenterVanderbilt UniversityNashvilleUSA
  3. 3.Infectious Disease and Immunogenetics Section (IDIS), Department of Transfusion Medicine, Clinical Center and the Trans-NIH Center for Human Immunology (CHI)National Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA

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