Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy

, Volume 60, Issue 8, pp 1127–1135

Ten years of progress in vaccination against cancer: the need to counteract cancer evasion by dual targeting in future therapies

  • Yeranddy A. Alpizar
  • Benjamin Chain
  • Mary K. Collins
  • John Greenwood
  • David Katz
  • Hans J. Stauss
  • N. Avrion Mitchison
Focussed Research Review


Although cancer immunology has made vigorous progress over the last decade, its future remains uncertain. Tumors have clearly proved subject to immune surveillance, leading to antigenic editing, and means of activating both T and B arms of the immune system have been devised. Therapeutic vaccination and monoclonal antibody therapy have so far proved disappointing, because tumors prove adept at evasion from immune control. Dual targeting could well counteract evasion, provided that the two targets are independent and are attacked simultaneously. This stage has nearly but not quite been reached in several forms of immunotherapy, particularly of B-cell cancers, although such treatment also carries hazards.


Cancer Immunotherapy Progress Epidemiology Immunoediting Evasion 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yeranddy A. Alpizar
    • 1
  • Benjamin Chain
    • 2
  • Mary K. Collins
    • 2
  • John Greenwood
    • 3
  • David Katz
    • 2
  • Hans J. Stauss
    • 3
  • N. Avrion Mitchison
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of Tumoral BiologyCentre for Molecular ImmunologyHabanaCuba
  2. 2.Division of Infection and ImmunityUniversity College London (UCL)LondonUK
  3. 3.UCL Institute of OphthalmologyLondonUK

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