Concurrent vaccination with two distinct vaccine platforms targeting the same antigen generates phenotypically and functionally distinct T-cell populations

  • Amanda L. Boehm
  • Jack Higgins
  • Alex Franzusoff
  • Jeffrey SchlomEmail author
  • James W. Hodge
Original Article



Studies comparing two or more vaccine platforms have historically evaluated each platform based on its ability to induce an immune response and may conclude that one vaccine is more efficacious than the other(s), leading to a recommendation for development of the more effective vaccine for clinical studies. Alternatively, these studies have documented the advantages of a diversified prime and boost regimen due to amplification of the antigen-specific T-cell population. We hypothesize here that two vaccine platforms targeting the same antigen might induce shared and distinct antigen-specific T-cell populations, and examined the possibility that two distinct vaccines could be used concomitantly.

Experimental design

Using recombinant poxvirus and yeast vaccines, we compared the T-cell populations induced by these two platforms in terms of serum cytokine response, T-cell gene expression, T-cell receptor phenotype, antigen-specific cytokine expression, T-cell avidity, and T-cell antigen-specific tumor cell lysis.


These studies demonstrate for the first time that vaccination with a recombinant poxvirus platform (rV/F-CEA/TRICOM) or a heat-killed yeast vaccine platform (yeast-CEA) elicits T-cell populations with both shared and unique phenotypic and functional characteristics. Furthermore, both the antigen and the vector play a role in the induction of distinct T-cell populations.


In this study, we demonstrate that concurrent administration of two vaccines targeting the same antigen induces a more diverse T-cell population that leads to enhanced antitumor efficacy. These studies provide the rationale for future clinical studies investigating concurrent administration of vaccine platforms targeting a single antigen to enhance the antigen-specific immune response.


Vaccinia Saccharomyces cerevisiae Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) T-cell populations Antitumor immunity 



The authors acknowledge the excellent technical assistance of Marion Taylor and Anais Kasten-Sportes, and the editorial assistance of Bonnie L. Casey in the preparation of this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amanda L. Boehm
    • 1
  • Jack Higgins
    • 1
  • Alex Franzusoff
    • 2
  • Jeffrey Schlom
    • 1
    Email author
  • James W. Hodge
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer InstituteNational Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  2. 2.GlobeImmune, Inc.LouisvilleUSA

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