Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy

, Volume 57, Issue 9, pp 1271–1278 | Cite as

Toll-like receptors expressed in tumor cells: targets for therapy

Review

Abstract

Toll-like receptors (TLRs), mainly expressing in human immune related cells and epithelial cells, play an essential role in the host defense against microbes by recognizing conserved bacterial molecules. Recently, the expression or up-regulation of TLRs has been detected in many tumor cell lines or tumors, especially epithelial derived cancers. Although the TLR profile varies on different tumor cells, the current evidences indicate that the expression of TLRs is functionally associated with tumor progression. TLR expression may promote malignant transformation of epithelial cells. Engagement of TLRs increases tumor growth and tumor immune escape, and induces apoptosis resistance and chemoresistance in some tumor cells. These findings demonstrate that TLR is a promising target for the development of anticancer drugs and make TLR agonists or antagonists the potential agents for tumor therapy.

Keywords

Toll-like receptors Tumor Therapy Target Agonist 

Abbreviations

BCGCWS

Bacillus Calmette-Guerin cell wall skeleton

CLL

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

CpG

Deoxycytidyl-phosphate-deoxyguanosine

DC

Dendritic cells

HMGB1

High-mobility-group box 1

iNOS

Inducible nitric oxide synthase

IRAK

IL-1R-associated kinase

IRF-3

IFN regulatory factor 3

Lm

Listeria monocytogenes

LPS

Lipopolysaccharide

MyD88

Myeloid differentiation primary-response protein 88

PAMPs

Pathogen-associated molecular patterns

Poly(I:C)

Polyinosine-polycytidylic acid

TIR

Toll/interleukin-1 receptor

TLRs

Toll-like receptors

TRAM

TRIF-related adaptor molecule

TRAF6

Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-6

TRIF

TIR-domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Histopathology, The First Affiliated HospitalSun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) UniversityGuangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Functional Genes, Department of BiochemistrySchool of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) UniversityGuangzhouPeople’s Republic of China

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