Cyclooxygenase-2 independent effects of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors on oxidative stress and intracellular glutathione content in normal and malignant human B-cells
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We recently reported that inhibition of Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) reduced human B-CLL proliferation and survival. Herein, we investigated the mechanisms whereby small molecule Cox-2 selective inhibitors, SC-58125 (a Celebrex analog) and CAY10404 blunt survival of human B-cell lymphomas and chronic lymphocytic leukemia B-cells. SC-58125 and OSU03012 (a Celebrex analog that lacks Cox-2 inhibitory activity) both decreased intracellular glutathione (GSH) content in malignant human B-cells, as well as in Cox-2 deficient mouse B-cells. This new finding supports Cox-2 independent effects of SC-58125. Interestingly, SC-58125 also significantly increased B-cell reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, suggesting that ROS are a pathway that reduces malignant cell survival. Addition of GSH ethyl ester protected B lymphomas from the increased mitochondrial membrane permeability and reduced survival induced by SC-58125. Moreover, the SC-58125-mediated GSH depletion resulted in elevated steady-state levels of the glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit mRNA and protein. These new findings of increased ROS and diminished GSH levels following SC-58125 exposure support novel mechanisms whereby a Cox-2 selective inhibitor reduces malignant B-cell survival. These observations also support the concept that certain Cox-2 selective inhibitors may have therapeutic value in combination with other drugs to kill malignant B lineage cells.
KeywordsCox-2 Oxidative stress Glutathione Lymphoma B-cells
Reactive oxygen species
Glutamate cysteine ligase