Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy

, Volume 56, Issue 4, pp 429–445 | Cite as

Vaccination therapy in prostate cancer

  • Andrea Marrari
  • Manuela Iero
  • Lorenzo Pilla
  • Sergio Villa
  • Roberto Salvioni
  • Riccardo Valdagni
  • Giorgio Parmiani
  • Licia Rivoltini
Review

Abstract

Radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy provide excellent localized prostate cancer (PC) control. Although the majority of prostate carcinoma is nowadays diagnosed at early stages with favourable risk features, in patients up to 30–40% it recurs within 10 years. Furthermore, the lack of effective therapies, once prostate carcinoma becomes refractory to androgen deprivation, mandates the development of alternative therapeutic options. There is a growing interest in harnessing the potency and specificity of anti-tumour immunity through the generation of fully competent dendritic cells and tumour reactive effector lymphocytes. Several strategies to treat or prevent the development of metastatic PC have been explored in clinical trials and are summarized in this review, considering also the feasibility and safety of these approaches. In some cases clinical responses were achieved showing that vaccine-primed T cells induced anti-tumour activity in vivo. The present findings and perspectives of the immunologic interventions in PC patients will be discussed.

Keywords

Prostate cancer Antigens Cancer vaccine Tumour immunity Androgen deprivation therapy Radiotherapy 

Abbreviations

ADT

Androgen deprivation therapy

APC

Antigen-presenting cells

DCs

Dendritic cells

PAP

Prostatic acid phosphatase

PC

Prostate cancer

PSA

Prostate-specific antigen

PSMA

Prostate-specific membrane antigen

RT

Radiotherapy

TAA

Tumour-associated antigens

TGFβ

Transforming growth factor β

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrea Marrari
    • 1
  • Manuela Iero
    • 1
  • Lorenzo Pilla
    • 1
  • Sergio Villa
    • 2
  • Roberto Salvioni
    • 3
  • Riccardo Valdagni
    • 4
  • Giorgio Parmiani
    • 1
  • Licia Rivoltini
    • 1
  1. 1.Unit of Immunotherapy of Human TumorsFondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei TumoriMilanItaly
  2. 2.Unit of RadiotherapyFondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei TumoriMilanItaly
  3. 3.Urology UnitFondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei TumoriMilanItaly
  4. 4.Prostate Cancer ProgramFondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei TumoriMilanItaly

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