Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy

, Volume 56, Issue 4, pp 469–476 | Cite as

Safety profile and anti-tumor effects of adoptive immunotherapy using gamma-delta T cells against advanced renal cell carcinoma: a pilot study

  • Hirohito KobayashiEmail author
  • Yoshimasa Tanaka
  • Junji Yagi
  • Yukinari Osaka
  • Hayakazu Nakazawa
  • Takehiko Uchiyama
  • Nagahiro Minato
  • Hiroshi Toma
Original Article



Although various types of immunotherapy have been used to improve the prognosis of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC), adoptive immunotherapy using gamma-delta (γδ) T cells has not yet been tried. In this study, we designed a pilot study of adoptive immunotherapy using in vitro activated γδ T cells against advanced RCC to evaluate the safety profile and possible anti-tumor effects of this study.

Experimental design

Patients with advanced RCC after radical nephrectomy were administered via intravenous infusion in vitro-activated autologous γδ T cells every week or every 2 weeks, 6–12 times, with 70 JRU of teceleukin. Adverse events, anti-tumor effects and immunomonitoring were assessed. The anti-tumor effects were evaluated according to tumor doubling time (DT) by computed tomography (CT) and immunomonitoring was performed by flow cytometric analysis.


Seven advanced RCC patients were entered in this study. The most common adverse events were fever, general fatigue and elevation of hepatobiliary enzymes, but no severe adverse events were seen. Prolongation of tumor DT was seen in three out of five patients; these three patients showed an increase in the number of γδ T cells in peripheral blood and also a high response to the antigen in vitro.


The results indicated that adoptive immunotherapy using in vitro-activated autologous γδ T cells was well tolerated and induced anti-tumor effects.


Renal cell carcinoma Adoptive immunotherapy Gamma-delta T cell Pilot study 



We would like to thank Ms Barbara Levene for reviewing our paper before submission, and Dr. Fumio Ito, Dr. Tunenori Kondo and Dr. Yasunobu Hashimoto for providing us with samples. This research was supported by grants from the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture of Japan and the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hirohito Kobayashi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yoshimasa Tanaka
    • 3
  • Junji Yagi
    • 4
  • Yukinari Osaka
    • 1
  • Hayakazu Nakazawa
    • 2
  • Takehiko Uchiyama
    • 4
  • Nagahiro Minato
    • 3
  • Hiroshi Toma
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of UrologyTokyo Women’s Medical UniversityTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of UrologyTokyo Women’s Medical University Medical Center EastTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Laboratory of Immunology and Cell Biology, Graduate School of BiostudiesKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  4. 4.Department of Microbiology and ImmunologyTokyo Women’s Medical UniversityTokyoJapan

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