Active hexose correlated compound enhances tumor surveillance through regulating both innate and adaptive immune responses
- 318 Downloads
Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) is a mixture of polysaccharides, amino acids, lipids and minerals derived from cocultured mycelia of several species of Basidiomycete mushrooms. AHCC has been implicated to modulate immune functions and plays a protective role against infection. However, the potential role of AHCC in tumor immune surveillance is unknown. In this study, C57BL/6 mice were orally administered AHCC or water, followed by tumor cell inoculation. We showed that compared to pure water-treated mice, AHCC treatment significantly delayed tumor development after inoculation of either melanoma cell line B16F0 or lymphoma cell line EL4. Treatment with AHCC enhanced both Ag-specific activation and proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, increased the number of tumor Ag-specific CD8+ T cells, and more importantly, increased the frequency of tumor Ag-specific IFN-γ producing CD8+ T cells. Interestingly, AHCC treatment also showed increased cell number of NK and γδ T cells, indicating the role of AHCC in activating these innate-like lymphocytes. In summary, our results demonstrate that AHCC can enhance tumor immune surveillance through regulating both innate and adaptive immune responses.
KeywordsNutrition food T cells Tumor immunity IFN-γ Tumor therapy
5-(and –6) Carboxyfluorescein diacetate, succinimidyl ester
Active hexose correlated compound
We thank Dr. Kim Bottomly from Yale Immunobiology for providing C57BL/6 OT-1 and OT-II transgenic mice. We thank Dr. Fotios Koumpouras and Dr. Bohdan Harvey for critical review of the manuscript. This work was supported by an Arthritis Foundation Investigator Award, NIH (NIAMS) K01 AR 02188 and NIH (NIAID) R01 (R01 AI56219) grant (Z.Y.), and partially supported by the Amino Up, Japan (Z.Y). D.Z. is supported by National Science Foundation of China (No. 30471593), Shanghai Leading Academic Discipline Project (T 0206). Authors from Yale have no financial conflict of interest.
- 1.Wakame K (1999) Protective effects of active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) on the onset of diabetes induced by Streptozotocin in the rat. Biomed Res 20:145–152Google Scholar
- 2.Ghoneum M, Wimbley M, Salem F, Mcklain A, Attallah N, Gill G (1995) Immunomodulatory and anticancer effects of active hemicellulose compound (AHCC). Int J Immunother 11:23–28Google Scholar
- 4.Sun B, Wakame K, Mukoda T, Toyoshima A, Kana-zawa T, Kosuna K (1997) Protective effects of AHCC on carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in mice. Nat Med 51:310–315Google Scholar
- 6.Shuyi Wang, Ichimura K, Wakame K (2001) Preventive effects of active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) on oxidative stress induced by ferric nitrilotriacetate in the Rat. Dokkyo J Med Sci 28:745–752Google Scholar
- 9.Mamdooh G, Phyllis P, Yasuo N, Mabrouk G, Gus G (1992) Enhancement of NK cell activity in cancer patients by active hemicellulose compound (AHCC). In: Adjuvant Nutrition in Cancer Treatment Symposium, Tulsa, OKGoogle Scholar
- 22.deVere White RW, Hackman RM, Soares SE, Beckett LA, Li Y, Sun B (2004) Effects of a genistein-rich extract on PSA levels in men with a history of prostate cancer Urology 63:259–263Google Scholar
- 28.Ghoneum M, NY, Torabi M, Gill G, Wojdani A (1992) Active hemicellulose compound (AHCC) enhance NK cell activity of aged mice in vivo. FASEB J 6:A1213 (Abstract)Google Scholar