Production of MCP-1 and RANTES in bladder cancer patients after bacillus Calmette-Guerin immunotherapy
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Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) therapy induces a local immunological response mediated by cellular immune and inflammatory reactions that enhance its anti-tumor efficacy in bladder cancer. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and the ''regulated on activation normal T expressed and secreted'' chemokine (RANTES) are potent chemotactic molecules that attract monocytes and memory T cells. MCP-1 and RANTES levels in patients with superficial bladder cancer treated with intravesical instillations of BCG are significantly higher than in untreated cancer patients and controls. In the present study, the subjects were divided into three groups: (1) control subjects; (2) bladder cancer patients who did not receive BCG treatment; (3) bladder cancer patients who received intravesical administration of BCG. No differences in the basal production and expression of MCP-1 and RANTES mRNA were observed between BCG-treated and untreated patients. BCG treatment influenced the monocyte response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and BCG stimulation. After 24-h incubation, monocytes from BCG-treated bladder cancer patients released more MCP-1 and RANTES than those from untreated bladder cancer patients and controls. The anti-tumor effects of BCG observed in superficial bladder cancer therapy may depend on stimulation of the investigated chemokines, which attract monocytes/macrophages and memory T cells.
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